How to Present a Good and Acceptable Research Project
Writing a project is a core requirement of the B.Sc. program and should be treated as a utmost priority just like every other courses. And failure to meet up with the project deadline translates to non-completion of the degree program, therefore, it is pertinent to adhere to rules guiding good essay as well as their supervisor’s remark.
2.0 Approval of Project Topic
Once a supervisor is assigned to a student, they are expected to submit 3 research topics, one of which would be approved by the supervisor. Bear in mind the supervisor can modify the topic as he/she so desires and so the proposal must contain the following.
- Background of the student: here you give background information of what inspired the research, the issues surrounding such phenomenon and the contributions of relevant scholars and philosophers on the subject.
- Statement of problem: This part will examine what existing laws or policies have been created to solve the problems, be it socio-political or economic and why such policies or law has failed and the potential gap the study aims to fill.
- Aims and objectives: State with clarity the aims and objective of the research work.
- Research question: convert the objectives into queries that are to generate data that will form the research objectives.
- Significance of the study: here you state the rationale for carrying out the research and its benefit to the socio-economic clime.
- Scope: this dwells on the lent to which the research work would go and its restrictions in other to achieve its set objectives.
- Organization of study: here the researcher splits the work into chapters and summarize the purpose of the study in not so many words. The work is to be divided into five chapters with other sections and sub-sections under it to develop the main idea.
3.0 Composition of the Project
Your research essay should be arranged as follows:
- (a) Title
- (b) Certification page: example:
This is to certify that the research work for this project and its subsequent preparation were carried out by (name of candidate & matric number) under the following supervision.
Name of supervisor. Signature & Date
Name of Head of Dept. Signature & Date
Name of External Examiner Signature & Date
- (c) Dedication
- (d) Acknowledgement
- (e) Table of content
- (f) Figure and tables
- (g) Abbreviations
- (h) Abstract– maximum of 500 words
- (I) Main body of project (Chapter 1-4)
- (j) summary, conclusion, and recommendations (chapter 5)
- (k) List of References and Bibliography
- The abstract should be in the following format:
- (1) Introduction/objective: A summary of what the research is about, specific objectives and contribution to knowledge.
- (2) Hypotheses: This are formulated hypotheses and their connection to the research objectives.
- (3) Method: The questionnaire or the interview method used, this should give details of how this was achieved.
- (4) Findings/result: State particular findings.
- (5) Implications: Interpretation of findings.
LENGTH OF THE PROJECT: The essay should be a maximum of 80 pages in length or the word equivalent, apart from references/bibliography.
TYPOGRAPHY AND FONT
The standard 12-point should be used for the main text. The usual font is the Times New Roman and should be justified to ensure uniformity in the typing style.
Use Double spacing for the main text and 1.5 for the reference/bibliography.
Margins should be provided to accommodate binding without encroaching on the text, 1-inch margins at top, bottom, and sides should be provided.
4.0 Plagiarism: avoid presenting another person’s work or idea as yours and this is a grievous academic offence with dire consequences. A good way to do this is to credit the sources of the information. When you use words from materials, quote the writer and reference the origin of such material(s).
- Keep away from using references that are more than 10 years.
- circumvent the use of assertions and statements that cannot be backed up by substantial academic evidence as this will discredit the work.
5.0 Approved Structure of Project
Chapter One: Introduction.
Chapter Two: Literature Review and Theoretical Framework.
Chapter Three: Research method.
Chapter Four: Data Presentation and Analysis.
Chapter Five: Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations.
The data analysis and questionnaires should be taken to the appendix page.
6.0 Style of citation and references
the author-date system style of referencing is that of the American Psychological Association (APA) should be adopted. According to APA, it is essential for students to quote their sources within the text or in a reference list on a fresh page, double spaced and with the use of indent hanging format.
In-text citation: for every statement, submission, or theories you present in your own words, you must cite the sources and year it was published ((Field, 2005) and page number if there is a direct phrase (Field, 2005, p. 14).
Reference list: the reference page is usually found at the end of the project on a fresh page, which lists in alphabetical order by surname, all the specifics about your sources that had been outlined in the body of the research work.
Italics: the preferred format for titles of books, journals and videos is italics. Article and chapter titles are not italicized or put in quotation marks. Volume members are italicized while issue members are not.
Capitalization: APA has specific rules when it comes to references, ensure to capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title, and the first letter of the first word after a colon. And Pronouns, acronyms and abbreviations that are normally capitalized should be capitalized in the reference list and citations.
Pronouns, acronyms, and abbreviations that are normally capitalized should be capitalized in the reference list and citations.
Examples of a reference list:
- Barnet, S., Bellanca, P., & Stubbs, M. (2013). A short guide to college writing. Pearson Education.
- Soles, D., & Soles, D. (2005). The academic essay: How to plan, draft, revise, and write essays. Studymates.
- Turner, K., Krenus, B., Ireland, L., & Pointon, L. (2011). Essential academic skills. Oxford University Press.
With electronic references it is important to give details of the location of the item. Electronic sources should be referenced in the same format as for a “fixed-media source”, such as a book with DOI (digital object identifier) included. Provide the URL if the item is freely accessible or the homepage URL if the access is restricted.
Example: Löfström, E. (2011). “Does plagiarism mean anything? LOL.” Students’ conceptions of writing and citing. Journal of Academic Ethics, 9(4), 257-275. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10805-011-9145-0
Caron, T. (2008). Teaching writing as a con-artist: When is a writing problem not? College Teaching, 56(3), 137-139. https://doi.org/10.3200/CTCH.56.3.137-139
Here are the major points in recap.
- Document all pertinent data gathered through your project.
- Use a notebook and keep a diary.
- Chart debugging sessions.
- Acquire more materials from publications or other external resources.
- Organize the material into sections agreed with your supervisor, e.g., “questionnaire” etc.
- Transform the data into a prose format to form the project report’s main body.
- Keep your readers in mind when you are writing the main body.
- Also identify common items, use sections and subsections, adopt conventional styles.
- Use cross-references where it is necessary.
- Get your references right.
- Make sure figures and other descriptive devices are accurate.
- Produce all required supporting structures according to convention, after completing the main body, and include this material in appendices not to disturb the flow of your narrative.
- Use textbooks from reputable publishers as examples to observe.
- Discuss an outline of the project report with your supervisor before you begin to write, this will fast track the planning of your project.