Interesting Biology Research Paper Topics, Projects & Ideas

Biology Research Paper Topics

When the Biological Sciences course reaches the final stretch, students need to dedicate themselves to the elaboration of the course conclusion work. The first step in this journey is to choose among so many possible topics for the Biology Undergraduate degree.

For many students, the final project represents the first contact with the scientific world, but it should not be so. It is recommended to take advantage of the first years of the Biology course to get to know interesting subjects and areas with greater affinity, through internships, monitoring, and scientific initiation.

How to define the research topic?

The list above gathers several subjects that can be polished and transformed into powerful themes for academic works. To put together the perfect theme, follow three decisive steps:

  • First step: Define the subject, that is, the central object of the study and the starting point for the research to happen.
  • Second step: To increase the specificity of the subject, it is necessary to express a point of view, the focus that will make the research more restricted.
  • Third step: cut out the theme, seeking maximum specificity.

Among future biologists, it is very common to conduct experiments right after choosing the topic. However, before going to this practical part, it is essential to read scientific productions on the subject and check what has already been done.

Interesting topics for biology research

Below are some topics to investigate and present, which could arouse the interest of both students and teachers.

Characteristics and functions of living beings

All living beings are made up of cells, also, they fulfil vital functions: they are born, grow, feed, breathe, reproduce and adapt to the environment in which they live.

To identify if a being is alive, it must meet all these characteristics, otherwise, it is inert or abiotic, that is, it is not a living being.

The 5 kingdoms of living beings

The kingdoms of nature are the different forms of organization of living beings. This classification is called the taxonomy of living things.

  • Animal Kingdom
  • Vegetable Kingdom or Plants
  • Kingdom of the Mushrooms
  • Kingdom Monera or bacteria
  • Protist kingdom 

The cell

It is the main unit for life. Living beings are made up of cells. They give structure to the body, take nutrients from food, transform them into energy and perform specific functions. Organisms can be:

  • Unicellular, which have a single cell, like bacteria, or
  • Multicellular, made up of more than one cell, like animals.

Parts and functions of the cell

Each cell has a structure, with certain functions, which are presented below:

  • Cellular membrane
  • Cytoplasm
  • The nucleus
  • Organelles: Lysosomes, mitochondria, and chloroplasts

Types of cells

Several types of cells determine the species to which a living being belongs:

  • Prokaryotic
  • Eukaryote: animal, vegetable 

The evolution of man

It is the whole process of transformation that man has presented from homo to sapiens, specifically:

  • Homo habilis
  • Ergaster
  • Erectus
  • Predecessor
  • Sapiens
  • Cro-Magnon
  • Sapiens sapiens

Characteristics of the animal kingdom

The animal kingdom is made up of multicellular organisms, which have eukaryotic cells and which in some species unite to create tissues and organs.

They feed on other living beings and are heterotrophic, among other characteristics.

Classification of animals

Animals can be divided according to several aspects:

  • Form of birth: Oviparous. Viviparous and Ovoviviparous.
  • Respiration form: Pulmonary, branchial, tracheal, and through the skin or cutaneous.
  • Symmetrical shape: Bilateral symmetry, radial symmetry, asymmetric.
  • Internal skeleton or bone forms: vertebrate animals and invertebrate animals.

The kingdom of plants

Plants are multicellular and eukaryotic organisms. Their cells have chloroplasts to carry out photosynthesis and make their food, that is, they are autotrophs. They do not have displacement and their reproduction can be sexual or asexual.

Among its main parts are: The root, the stem, the leaves, the flower, and the fruit.

Classification of plants

According to the way they reproduce, they are classified as follows:

  • Reproduction by seeds: Angiosperms and gymnosperms.
  • Reproduction by spores: Ferns and mosses.


Biodiversity is made up of all the different living beings found in the world. The more species there are on earth, the greater the biodiversity. It is an indicator of the richness and variety of species that an ecosystem has. Some topics of interest are:

  • The ecosystems
  • Loss of biodiversity


Water is a vital element, produced by the union of 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom, H2 This binary compound is essential for living beings and it is important to study the following:

Characteristics of the water.

  • Water cycle.
  • Water quality.
  • Water care and conservation.
  • Tips for using water responsibly.

Heredity and genetics

When organisms reproduce, some properties are transferred to offspring.

If the reproduction is asexual, the descendants are exact to their parents; On the other hand, if it is sexual, through the relationship between two individuals, half of the characteristics of each parent are shared. Some points to broaden the topic are:

  • The DNA
  • The Chromosomes
  • The genes
  • Mendel’s Law 

Respiratory system

Respiration is a vital function, that is if an organism does not breathe it dies in a very short time. This process consists of inhaling air and taking it to the lungs, to look for the oxygen that the body needs and exhaling to release the carbondioxide. The following points can be investigated in this regard:

  • Types of respiration.
  • Conformation of the human respiratory system.
  • Respiratory diseases.

Garbage and waste

Waste is the materials that through a process can be recycled or reused for another activity. When such waste can no longer be reused or recycled, it becomes a waste, better known as garbage.

Therefore, they differ in that the waste can be used, but the waste cannot become garbage. Some details to concentrate on:

  • Types of waste
  • Selection of waste and collection in containers.
  • Rule of the 3 Rs: Reduce, Reuse and Recycle.
  • Efficient management of solid waste

Conservation of the natural environment

Protecting nature has become an urgency for the preservation of terrestrial flora and fauna, as well as the different ecosystems. The destruction of these is a serious problem that affects even humans.

How to preserve nature without hindering human development is the big question that governments and environmental institutions have on the table.

Climate change

Climate change is being studied more and more in more and more universities, biology centers, and environmental institutions.

The action of the human being is assuming a modification in the Earth’s climate which, in turn, is modifying the habitual behaviors of the planet’s organisms.


Drugs of biological composition, that is, those produced by living organisms, have an increasing impact in general medicine compared to chemical pharmacology. For example, the general vaccine or insulin has a biological origin.

There is more and more research on serious diseases such as cancer or multiple sclerosis in which significant advances have been seen thanks to this type of drug.

Specific Topics for Biology Research

1. How climate change affects our health

High temperatures stimulate the proliferation of disease vectors mosquitoes.

Climate change is a consequence of global warming that is affecting our planet. Increased temperatures and alterations in climatic conditions, can they increase public health problems? What diseases will proliferate? Will new diseases appear?

2. Understanding the concept of gene therapy

Gene therapy is the treatment of hereditary diseases through the modification of the genes involved in them. Among the diseases that could be targeted by this type of therapy are sickle cell disease or Huntington’s disease, and some types of cancer.

Will gene therapy be the most effective way to cure all diseases? What are the advantages and disadvantages of gene therapy?

3. Understanding the dangers in transgenic foods

Transgenic organisms or genetically modified organisms have their genetic code modified with parts of the genetic code of other living beings. This is done so that these beings can produce proteins that under normal conditions they do not.

Transgenic foods have a series of advantages and disadvantages, which will undoubtedly determine their most widespread use at a general level. How are transgenic foods produced? What is the danger of its preparation and consumption?

4. Effectiveness of vaccines against disease

Human beings have a system that protects us against invading agents: viruses, bacteria, parasites. This system is the immune system. Vaccines are a way to activate the immune system and prepare it to deal with a pathogen. How do vaccines work in the body? Can vaccines be used to prevent all diseases? What are the harms of vaccines?