ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOYA BEAN
1.1 Background of the Study
Soy processing industries select raw material based on weight, moisture, impurities and grain damage. Differences in chemical and physical properties of soybean cultivars are not taken into consideration in soyfood processing. Information on these characteristics could help food industries obtain products with better functional, nutritional and sensory qualities with greater cost‑benefits (Sbardelotto & Leandro, 2008).
Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is a particularly good source of protein (35–42%) and fat (16–27%). This makes the soybean one of the most valuable and most commonly cultivated crops (Kumar et al., 2006). The soybean shares the flaw of many plants from theFabaceae family, namely it is prone to mechanical damage occurring during threshing,cleaning, drying, transportation, storage and processing. Knowledge of the physical properties of soybean seeds is therefore particularly important for the optimization of harvesting, drying storing and processes (Rybiński et al., 2009). Unlike cereal grains, soybean seeds have two cotyledons between which a gap may be formed if the water content is low. This leads to an increased susceptibility ofthe seeds to damage like, for example, breaking in half
(Shahbazi et al., 201).
According to their different uses, soybean cultivars are classified as grain‑type, which are conventionalsoybeans for oil and animal feeding, and food-type,which are those for human consumption in fermented
foods and non-fermented foods (tofu, soy flour and soy milk) (Liu, 1999). Therefore, soybean cultivars for human consumption should present special chemical and physical characteristics.
In view of the above this project intends to carryout an analysis of physical and chemical properties of soya bean.
1.2 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this work was to analyze the physical and chemical properties of soybean.
Other objectives are;
1. To carryout analysis of the physical properties of soya bean
2. To determine the chemical properties of soya bean
3. To evaluate the physical and chemical properties of soybean cultivars for food processing
1.3 Justification of the Study
Soybean is an important source of high-quality protein. Soybean cultivars with high protein content allow the production of foods with superior nutritional value and yield, such as soy milk and tofu. To make superior nutritional value and yield products particularly rely on the indepth knowledge of the physical and chemical properties. Therefore, this work will reveal the physical and chemical properties of soybean which will aid anyone with the knowledge of soybean and its physical and chemical properties.