Producing and Sensory Examine the Biscuit Using Wheat Flour, Cassava Flour (Abacha Floor) and African Yam Bean Flour
This work reviewed the types, uses and effects of junk foods on human health (advantages and disadvantages). The different types of junk foods include. Drinks, snacks, and phytochemicals. Their advantages include lowering the blood lipid levels, improving arterial compliance, scavenging free radicals and inhibiting platelet aggregation. Disadvantages include the fact that the presence of phytochemicals in food may send confusing signals about how to plan a healthful diet. Thus, linking the consumption of junk food with human claims should be based on scientific evidence.
Production of biscuit using composite wheat / Abacha / African yam bean flour was investigated. Cassava root from one year old was used for the production of Abacha flour. Thin slices of boiled peeled tubers were soaked in water for 12 hours before drying and milling into Abacha flour. African Yam Bean was sorted and soaked in water for 12 hours and milled into flour. Biscuit was baked with quantities of wheat, Abacha and African Yam Bean flour blended into the ratio of 100%, 90%:5%:5%, 80%: 10%:10%, 70%:15%:15% respectively. The biscuit samples were evaluated for sensory evaluation attributes. The sensory evaluation shows that the composite biscuit of 90%:5%:5%, & 80%:10%:10% were mostly preferred than that of 70%:15%:15% substitution in terms of taste, colour, texture & general acceptability.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 SCOPE / LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
1.2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 USE OF COMPOSITE FLOUR IN BISCUIT MAKING
2.2 THE ROLE OF BISCUITS IN SUPPLEMENTARY AND EMERGENCY FEEDING
2.3 WHEAT FLOUR IN BISCUIT MAKING (DEFINITION)
2.4 NUTRITIVE VALUE OF WHEAT FLOUR
2.5 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF WHEAT FLOUR
2.6 ORIGIN OF WHEAT
2.7 HEALTH BENEFIT OF WHEAT
2.8 USE OF WHEAT
2.9 LIMITATIONS OF WHEAT
2.10 ORIGIN OF AFRICAN YAM BEAN
2.11 NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF AFRICAN YAM BEAN
2.12 HEALTH BENEFITS OF AFRICAN YAM BEAN
2.13 USES OF AFRICAN YAM BEAN
2.14 LIMITATIONS OF AFRICAN YAM BEAN
2.15 PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF AFRICAN YAM BEAN
2.16 ORIGIN OF CASSAVA
2.17 ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF CASSAVA
2.18 USES OF CASSAVA
2.19 NUTRITIONAL IMPORTANCE OF CASSAVA
2.20 HEALTH BENEFITS OF CASSAVA
2.21 LIMITATION OF CASSAVA
2.22 RAW MATERIALS FOR BISCUIT MAKING
2.23 NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF BISCUIT
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 RECIPES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BISCUITS
3.2 FORMULATION OF FLOUR BLENDS
3.3 BISCUIT PRODUCTION
4.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1 RESULT OF SENSORY EVALUATION
5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Urbanization is changing the food habits and preferences of the populace towards convenient foods, which influence their nutritional intake. Most of the snacks consumed are high in carbohydrates. The use of composite flour has been encouraged since it reduces the importation of wheat.
Biscuits, which are usually produced from cereal flours (mainly wheat) are consumed extensively all over the world, including the developing counties, where protein and caloric malnutrition is prevalent particularly among women and children. The increasing phenomenon of urbanization coupled with the growing number of working mothers, have contributed greatly to the popularity and increased consumption of snack foods (Singh et al; 1989). However, this increasing importance of snack foods such as biscuits in today’s eating habits has not been fully exploited in developing countries. This is probably a result of the prohibitive cost of baked products (Tsen et al; 1973). Since this crop is not currently cultivated in the tropics, there is a need to look inwards for local raw materials with optimum nutritive value and good processing characteristics, to substitute wheat in baked products.
Cassava (Manihot esculenta L) is the staple food of the poorer section of the population of many tropical counties rich in carbohydrates and has minute quantities of protein, vitamins and minerals (Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 1985) which can result in malnutrition in some areas where it is the main item of diet (Kay, 1987). Although supplementation is necessary, it is not the solution to the elimination of micronutrient deficiency disorder but rather the simple and most sustainable approach is the fortification of staple food with limiting micronutrients (Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 1985). Therefore the nutritional value of cassava root and its products such as cassava flour can be improved through food composites and fortification with other protein-rich crops with a reasonable amount of fats, vitamins and minerals (Enwere, 1998). One of such crops is the African yam bean.
The African yam bean known as Odudu, Azama or Okpodudu by the Igbo’s belongs to the family Fabaceae, which was formally classified under the sub-family Papillionoides (Anon, 1979). As a legume, it has an excellent supply of B-vitamins (Apata & Ologhobo, 1990). African yam beam will result in a more nutritious diet/snacks.
1.1 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
It is anticipated that in carrying out a study of this nature, there are limitations involved in the study. The writer encouraged a lot of unforeseen problems due to the limited time given, the writer was unable to gather enough and sufficient facts which are relevant to the study.
Secondly, there was a financial problem. The writer was not able to buy some of the materials like Bakery pastry booklets, get in touch with Bakery industry managers, travel for some researches etc. the polytechnic library was not fully equipped with the most relevant materials that would have assisted the writer.
1.2 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
Production of biscuits from wheat flour, cassava flour and African yam bean composite flour is used in every production sector of the Bakery industry that specialized in Biscuit making.
The government has estimated that the average Nigeria that consumed biscuits every day is approximately 5,500 million in different locations in the country. Biscuit is named as often, the fastest and cheapest food that sustains hungry easily, with increased technological capabilities. The bakery industry has extremely similar products and services that is characteristical without distinguishing the name of the product food substance.
In a nutshell, the study is important in the following areas: To the Researcher:
i. It enables the researcher to acquire knowledge on how biscuits can be produced from composite flour
ii. It enables the researcher to acquire knowledge on different ways of using wheat, cassava and African yam bean flour in the production of major pasting floured.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objective of this study is, therefore, to produce biscuits from various blends of wheat flour, cassava flour and African yam bean flour and to determine the sensory properties of the biscuit. Meanwhile, the acceptability of biscuits baked from the flours to increase the level of the wheat flour, cassava flour and African yam bean composite flour for biscuit production will lead to higher utilization of cassava thereby reducing post-harvest losses.
Anon (1979) Tropical Legumes Resource for the future. Report of Adhoc panel of the Advisory Committee on tech innov. Board of Sci and Tech Innov Pp 34 37.
Apata D.F and Ologhobo, A.O (1990). Some aspects of the biochemistry and nutritive value of African yam bean seed (Spherostylis stenocardia). Food Chem. 36:271:280.
Beavers I.A. (1968) physio-chemical and handling, storage of plant foods OCJ publishers. Enugu, Pp 45-78.
Ene-ebony, H.N and Carnovale, E. (1993) Nigeria soup condiments: Traditional processing and potential as dietary fibre sources food chemistry 43. 29 34.
Enwere M.J. (1998). Foods of plant origin. Processing and utilization with recipes and technology profiles. Afro- Orbis publication Ltd. Nsukka Pp 24 228.
Emma, Pomeranz 92007) the book of Empeh publisher. Ten-speed press 2nd Edition.
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