PERSONNEL APPRAISAL IN A ROUTINIZED MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN UNIVERSITY
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
A natural consequence of the systematic view of organization is that it is made up of subsystems or components which are interdependent and interrelated.
Any of these components can derail or be operated in a way that is inconsistent with requirement for efficient attainment of organizational goal. It becomes the role of the manager, therefore to operate instrument of control to ensure that there is integration of the component part for goals attainment.
Personnel performance appraisal is one of these instruments of control.
The human component serves as the head as it were which circulates and energizes every subsystem of the organization as system.
The University of Benin was found in 1970. It started as an institute of technology and was accorded. The status of a full fledged university by National Universities Commission (NUC) on 1st July, 1971. In his budget speech in April 1972, the then military governor of mid-western state, col S.O Ogbemudia. (then also visitor to the university) formally announced the change of the name of the institute of technology to the University of Benin, on 1st April, 1975. The University at the request of the state government, was taken over by the federal government and became a federal university at the onset, the university was situated at Ekenwan Road in 1972, a project to build a main campus at Ugbowo and Ekosodin governance with Engineer Daniel Uhe Niven as the director. Today the main site campus, is at Ugbowo, but some courses are still offered at Ekenwan campus. Today, the university has continued to grow from strength to strength with a number of faculties, department, institutes and units.
Following NUC’s directives, the university experimented with the collegiate system in 1971/72 and 1992/93.
However, the light of new developments the university reverted to the faculty system except for the Schools of Medicine, Dentistry, Basic Medical Science and Institute of child health which reverted back to the collegiate system in August, 1999 with a provost as its administrative head.
The faculties as presently constituted are those of Agriculture, Arts Education, Engineering, Law, Life Science, Pharmacy, Physical Science, Social Science and college of medical science (which has three schools, Basic medicine and the institute of child health). In January 2006, the federal government approved the take off of the college of petroleum and gas engineering of the University of Benin ate Effunin, near Warri in Delta state, with the initial population of hundred (100) students in two department petroleum engineering and gas engineering.
The university offer course at various levels, post graduate undergraduate, diploma and certificate. Presently, the total student enrolment stands at over 40,000 made of both fulltime and part time students share among the various faculties. So personnel performance appraisal attempt to identify, record and analyse the expectation of the organization. It is based on the assumption that members of the organization respond differently and in varying degree to stimuli to which they are exposed in their work.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
The problem of the study is whether personnel appraisal make the employee’s to put in their best in order to increase production and good rendering of services in an organization. In service sector for example rampart change of weak performance in very high among workers and there are many factors that contributed to this trend. Some of them are lack of information and skills for proper appraisal of employees. This has caused harm to the growth and development of management system in Nigeria.
Another problem is that some managers or personnel to follow the due process or procedure, when they are appraising the employees. They judge employees base on their personnel perception, they have employee’s who have caused harm to the organization.
This project is also directed at providing solution to improve and encourage proper personnel appraisal in management system in Nigeria, precisely university of Benin, Benin City, Edo state.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The primary objective of this study is examinational cum determination of the effect of personnel appraisal in a routinised management system in Nigeria particularly emphasis on university of Benin, Edo state.
The onus of this examination lies on the fact that personnel appraisal is very useful in management system in Nigeria especially the above tertiary institution mentioned for development planning as well as source of reference for further ideological endeavour for today’s generation and our good children yet unborn who might wish to narrow the spectrum of ignorance and widening that of knowledge in this area of study.
These are some of the objectives:
- To identify the relationship between personnel appraisal and employee’s performance.
- To examine the usefulness of employee’s performance appraisal in an organization.
- to determine if there is need adapting the use of management by objective (MBO) techniques in employee’s performance appraisal.
- To examine the role of personnel management in achieving organizational goal by utilizing employee’s performance appraisal.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
The following research question where develop by the researcher.
- Is there any relationship between personnel appraisal and employee’s performance?
- What are the usefulness of employee’s performance appraisal in an organization?
- Is there any need of adapting management by objective (MBO) techniques in appraising employee’s performance?
- Does personnel management effectively utilizes employee’s performance in achieving organizational?
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research work is delimited in scope to include only the selected institution, university of Benin, Benin City, Edo state. Nigeria respectively, which the study intended to cover the personnel appraisal in routinized management system, in the university of Benin, Benin city, Edo state.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Considering the research topic which is personnel appraisal in a routinized management system in Nigeria. The following groups of people could derive great benefit from it. The management in all employment cadre would be enlightened in the role expected on them in ensuring proper personnel appraisal and achieving the organizational goal. Secondly, this could expose the differences of practicing personnel appraisal to lecture in higher institution of learning, with the hope or correcting potential practitioner in the field before they go to the practice again. The outcome of the research would spurs organization with our proper appraisal of performance in management to make adjustment.
Finally would benefit future researcher on some topic as the material would be great source of better guide to them. It will also be great benefit to an organization to know the usefulness and functions of personnel management department in an organization.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The terms use in this study which have special meaning that are likely to be subject to different interpretation by various readers of this work are under defines as follows:
- Personnel appraisal: This is programme, systematically adapted to identify record and analyse the performance of an individual on the job for a period of time usually one year.
- Performance appraisal: It is a process of establishing goal and appraisal the work done towards those goals such as dependability and initiative that are subjective in nature.
- Employee’s performance appraisal: This is the process of placing value on the performance of people in the organization with a view to enhancing the individual and organizational developmental.
- Job Evaluation: Is the process of determining without regard to personalities, the worth of one job in relation to another in the organization.
- Training: This is seen as acquisition of skill, utility competitiveness related as the profession less prone to redundancy and is versatile to job task.
- Motivation: This could be define as those factors that prompt employee to perform optionally in their designated task.
- Job Description: Is a written statement of what the job holder actually does, the specific activities involve and the type of tools machinery and supplies needed.
- Job Design: Is a process that is concern with the contents functions and relationship of job that are directed towards the accomplishment of organizational purpose and certification of the personnel needs of the individual job holder. Selogu (1980).
- Career Development: It is a process that help to provide job information, help the organization to draw up channel of promotion, and provide the employee with data concerning opportunities and requirement for career with the organization.
- Job Rotation: Is the switching of people between jobs involving similar tasks and boredom.
- routinised: Can be defined as process of developing into a regular process by which things are been done in an organization.
- Goal: Is an open ended statement of what one want to accomplish with no qualification of what is to be achieved and no time criteria for completion.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter discusses the work of the other scholars in the area of personnel appraisal much has been written in the area but contemporary issues involve have not been into consideration and extensively discussed.
On the strength of the above, this chapter is therefore organized in order to help know the meaning of the topic, which is personnel appraisal in a routinized management system, which many scholars have come up with various meaning of the above study.
2.2 THE MEANING OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
According to business dictionary, it define performance appraisal as the process by which a manager or consultant examines and evaluates an employees work behaviour by comparing it with present standards, documents the result of the comparism, and uses the result to provide feedback to the employee to show where improvement are needed and why.
Harbison (1995) sees employee’s performance and job evaluation as the energies skill talent and knowledge available in institution as well as other organization.
Harbison in his support to employee’s performance appraisal and job evaluation utilization, stress that they are the active agent who accumulate capital, exploit natural resource, build socio economic and political organization and carry forward national development.
Ordia (2005) sees personnel appraisal and evaluation as the process of acquiring and increasing the number of person who have educational skills and experience which are critical for economic and social development of the country. Obeah, D.S (2001) sees employee performance appraisal as a systematic evaluation of the individual which respect to his performance on the job and his potential for development. He state further, that employee performance appraisal is an ongoing process, it is not static and it involves many interrelated art works, the plan must be modified and updated as condition requires and this include, the planning and development of employees performance, such as training recruitment and retrenchment.
GRAHAM H.T (2003) sees appraisal as the judgment of employee’s performance in his job base on the consideration other than productivity along. He further stated that the term is applies in personnel management to a formal and systematic assessment made in a prescribed and uniform manner at a certain time of the month, or the year.
2.3 BASIC REQUIREMENT FOR PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
According to Mrs. Momoh, (2002) she said it’s important to have some basic material that can aid in appraisal process before embarking on the process. Some of the material that is necessary are stated below.
- Job Description and job specification: The reported needs a yardstick with which to appraise a worker. Job description hard specifications are yardstick set by the organization and they can be used to measure the performance of the employee.
- Task and Target: In situation, where there is no job description, specification, there must be task and target mapped out for employee. It is necessary to have clearly set objective of what the employees are expected to achieve. The personnel must or the reporting officer can refer to sub target or task completed instead of using subject judgment in assign the workers.
2.4 USES OF EMPLOYEES PERSONNEL APPRAISAL
According to Mr. Momoh (2002) He said virtually, all as organization use performance appraisal for a variety of purpose, these purpose include the following.
- Reward System: Performance appraisal may form the bases of organization reward system. It is used as a means of distributing reward within the organization in other. Words the appraisal can provide backup data for management decision particularly merit based compensation plans.
- Feedback ‘to employees: performance appraisal provides feedback to employees about the quantity and quality job performance without this information, employees will have little knowledge of how well they are doing their jobs and how well they can improve upon their present performance level.
- Personnel decision: performance appraisal can help in making decision related to personnel function general such as those related to promote transfer and terminations management can make choices on the basis of appraisal information about individual talents and shortcomings.
2.5 THE OBJECTIVE OF EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL IN MANAGEMENT
The conventional concept of management task in harnessing performance of organizational requirement can be stated broadly in terms of three prepositions according to MC Gregor which are:
- With respect of people, this is a process of directing their efforts, motivating them, controlling their action, evaluating their job, modifying their job to fit the need of the organization.
- Management is responsible for organizing sound element productive achievement of the organization.
- Without effective or active intervention by management of people would be passive even resistant to organization needs and achievement. The must therefore, be trained, rewarded, evaluated their performance, punished controlled their activities and must be directed.
The human side of enterprise today is fashioned from preposition and beliefs such as organizational structures, managerial policies practices and programme reflects these assumptions.
2.6 THE ROLE OF PERSONAL MANAGEMENT IN AN ORGANIZATION
As more workers have found their basic need satisfied in our society, the recognition of the dignity of the individual and the importance of the opportunity for satisfaction and self fulfillment on the job, have underline the expanded role of personnel management in an organization which includes: recruitment, selection, training and general provision for needs of employees in the organization.
The performance appraisal of employees appraisal recognized that all persons in an organization, regardless of their level of job are potential sources.
Innovation and talent, different authors have different views on the term personnel management.
Patrick A. Omoile (2005) in his book fundamental of management” sees personnel management as the management concern with the people at work and with their relationship within their organization, its aim is to bring together and develop the organization so to enable their best towards the success of the organization. In particular, personnel management is concern with the development and application of policies governing. Manpower recruitment, selecting placement and determination
2.7 STAFFING FUNCTION
Staffing could be said to be the process of ensuring that the organization has qualified worker available at the level of meet its short and long term objective staffing. The duty of personnel management is concern with getting and keeping effective employees for the organization.
Fundamental of management by Mr. Omoile, the major component of staff function are:
Job analysis, job description, job specification as stated by Michael Jerome et al (1991) job analysis involves discovering the details of each job, the component of job analysis entails and location of the job, its duties and responsibilities. The working condition: the pay the opportunities for promotion and where the job training is offered.
2.8 MAINTENANCE FUNCTION
The maintenance function comprises of employee welfare, salaries, wages, benefits, job evaluation, wages survey incentives (financial and non financial) job satisfaction, work motivation and employees communication.
In personnel management employee well being has to be taken into consideration, this could be in term of monetary reward and other necessary benefit maintenance as the name implies means taking care of all the maintenance involves, it based upon the wellbeing of employees wages incentives, as maintenance function, provide are means of encouraging the effective performance of human resources. The purpose of wages incentives is to induce workers/staffs to put greater productivity effort for which cash reward is paid. The introduction of wages incentives is an organization as stated by Raymond et al (1976) is a test that requires high degree of skill, judgment tact and knowledge of the production process that are employed. He also stated that the confident of the workers must be gained and they must understand thoroughly just how the system works.
The purpose of wages and salary administration is provided adequately and equalize compensation to all employers. Wages and salary administration take a distant challenge in holding such important matters in the maintenance of a productive employee and staff.
2.9 ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT FUNCTIONS
To understand how and why organization/institutions are formed, we must investigate their origin
Most institution/universities, polytechnics and colleges of education are surprisingly new, been the most well established university have a history of more than two years and about (John Beashow and David Palfreman).
The organization is its environment
According to Nwachukwu (1988) it can be seen as an entity. He went further to say that an organization is a group of people bound together to provide unity of action for the achievement of a predetermined objective, from the statement, it is agreed upon that organization is very fundamental to human nature. Typically in universities work is share out so that each person, has his allocated role i.e. exams and records, engineering and schools of business respectively etc many individual and corporate goals relate to specialization, people tend to specialize in what they can do best and the organization facilitate this to enhance good services and productivity is the mark of advance as opposed to primitive ones.
2.10 METHOD OF PERSONNEL PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
As indicated above, appraisal criteria are generally either personality oriented or result oriented, with each of these orientations appraisal still have to “measure” individual performance. This is done by using one or more scales for rating performance. The principal option available according to Beach D.S (1980) are
- Rating scale: The rating scale is by far the most common and conventional method of appraisal. It contains each of the personal character, qualities or factors against each of which is a scale usually of five points for the manager or immediate supervisor to work his assessment of the subordinate.
- Interpersonal compassion: There are two major techniques of this method are:
Ranking: This techniques requires the manager (assessor) to rank his subordinate in order to merit usually on their total ability on the job.
- Checklist: This techniques contain a large number of statements which describe specific aspects of behaviour that descript best performance on the job.
2.11 THE MERITS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL BASED ON CORPORATE OBJECTIVE
According to A.K Momoh (2009) the following are the merits
- Basis for improving quality managements the advantage of appraisal is that it help the employees to put in their best. Is the basic to effective management and it is also a means of improving the quality of managing which keep organization to achieve their goal.
- Operationality: In the area of appraising there other special and important strengths. Appraising on the basics of performance against objectives has the great advantage of being operational. Appraisal are not party from the job that personnel management do but are as review of what they carefully did as manager.
- Lead to objectively and eliminate judgment sense: there are always questions of how well a person did whether goals were missed or accomplished, and far what reasons and how much in the way of goal attainment should be expected. But information about what a person has done, measured against what that employee agreed was a reasonable target available.
2.12 KINDS OF APPRAISAL
According to A.K Momoh (2009) the following are kinds of appraisal
- Comprehensive Appraisal: should be conducted at least once a year, but some organizations suggested such discussion should take place more frequently. It depends on the nature of the task, past company practices and other situational factors may be appropriate for a particular organization or a person who is new in a job.
- Periodical Appraisal: What is important is that the formal comprehensive review should be supplemented by frequent progress or relatively informal, but they help identify problem or barriers that hinder effective performance. They also keep communication open between the manager and employee.
- Continuous Appraisal: Finally, there is continuous monitoring of performance with this system when performance devices from plans one does not wait for the next periodic review to correct it. The manager and employee discuss the situation immediately so that corrective action can be taken at once in order to prevent a small deviation from developing into major problem.
In summary, we were able to look at the various meanings of performance appraisal by different scholars. We also discuss their uses, objectives and basic requirement for performance appraisal.
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