Civil Engineering

Effluent Impact on Water Quality

Effluent Impact on Water Quality – Civil Engineering Projects


This project work was aimed at determining the effect of effluent on Aba River. This became pertinent owing to the fact that companies discharge their effluent into the river without treatment. Four different samples were collected from four locations and analyzed, which include Upstream Sample (A), Unilever Effluent (B), Nigeria Breweries Effluent (C), and Down Stream Sample (D).

The results obtained indicated that there is industrial input of metals like Iron, Copper, Zinc, Calcium and non metals like Sulphate, Phosphate, Chloride, and Carbonate. This parameters were higher when compared with WHO’s standard.

The microbiological analysis showed that the river is highly polluted.
Finally conclusions were drawn and recommendations made.

Table of Content

Title Page
Approval Page
Table of Content


1.1 Statement of the Problem
1.2 Aims and Objective
1.3 Area of Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Definition of Terms


2.1 Historical need and Development of Drinking Water Quality
2.2 Water Characteristic
2.3 Waste Water Characteristics
2.4 Water Pollution
2.4.1 Water-Borne-Diseases
2.4.2 Water-Washed-Diseases
2.4.3 Water-Based-Diseases
2.4.4 Water-Related Diseases
2.5 Drinking Water Quality Standards and Goals
2.5.1 Primary Drinking Water Standard
2.5.2 Secondary Drinking Water Standard
2.5.3 How Standards are Set


3.1 Data Collection
3.2 Parameters Analysed
3.2.1 Apparatus/Reagents
3.3 Methods used in The Experiment
3.4 Practical Results
3.4.1 Temperature
3.4.2 Colour
3.4.3 pH
3.4.4 Odour
3.4.5 Calculating for Hardness in the Samples
3.4.6 Calculating Alkalinity
3.4.7 Total Dissolved Solid (TDS)
3.4.8 Dissolved Oxygen
3.4.9 Metals (Cations)
3.5 Non Metals (Anions)
3.5.1 Comparing The parameters with WHO’s Standard
3.5.2 Dissolved Oxygen Curve


4.1 Parameters
4.2 Analysis of Physical Parameters
4.3 Analysis of Chemical Parameters
4.1 Analysis of Microbiological Parameters


5.2 Recommendation


Effluent impact on water quality is a point of great concern. This is because, it has been observed that the quality of water people use has a great effect on their health. If proper care is not taken to ascertain the characteristics or composition of the discharged effluent, then environment is exposed to numerous hazards.

One may ask what an effluent really is. An effluent is defined as an industrial liquid waste. It is characterized by the components used in such industries. This implies that the composition or characteristics of effluent varies from industry to industry.

Impact at the other hand is defined as an effect felt as a result of an action taken or a process carried out. It becomes pertinent to carryout Environmental Impact Assessment of possible action to be taken or projects to be carried out. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is defined as a management tool used to assess and evaluate any potential change in the environment (including air, water, land, natural resources, fauna flora, humans and their interaction) whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially, that results from an organisations activities, products or services (Ofunne, 2002).

We are really concerned with the effect the discharge of liquid industrial waste (effluent), from Unilever plc and Nigeria Breweries Limited; have on the quality of water obtainable at the river where they are discharged. This impact that is our point of concern is dependent of the various compositions of the effluent and its degree.

Wastewater ought to be collected or a sewer system and transported to plant for treatment prior to disposal (Mark and Mark, 2008). Dilution into a surface water course and purification by nature yield additional quality improvement. The feat of this effluent discharge is that of collecting the water before complete rejuvenation for municipal.


The hazardous effect of the effluent flows from Unilever Plc and Nigeria Breweries Limited to Aba River is our point of concern. This becomes a problem because the waste ought to be channelled to a sewer treatment plant before being discharged finally into the river. This is to help reduce the intensity of the wastewater.
It is therefore pertinent to ascertain the composition of these effluents and relating it with the effect the have on the river quality. This is so because if it not ascertained the environment is exposed to a lot of risk.


1. To ascertain the level of pollution of the river due to the discharged effluents.
2. To compare the physical, and chemical parameters in the river with the World Health Organizations acceptable standard for drinking water.
3. To suggest or recommend the best ways of discharging effluent in the river.
4. To suggest ways of enforcing the methods of effluent discharge.


The project is based on the analysis of the different water samples collected from Aba River in Aba North Local Government Council of Abia State, (where Unilever Plc and Nigeria Breweries Plc discharge their effluent).


1. To help bring to the notice of the companies the effect their waste is having in the environment.
2. To proffer solution on the best ways of discharging effluent into rivers.
3. To serve as a reference to all who will handle similar projects in future.


Characteristics: General classes of wastewater constituents (wastewater) such as physical, chemical, and biological and biochemical.
Composition: The makeup of wastewater, including physical, chemical and biological constituents.
Constituents: Individual components, elements or biological entities such as suspended solids or ammonia nitrogen.
Contaminants: Constituents added to water through use that pollutes the water.
Disinfection: Reduction of disease-causing microorganisms by physical or chemical means.
Effluent: Industrial liquid waste or liquid discharged from a processing step.
Impurities: Constituents added to water through use.
Nutrient: An element that is essential for the growth of plants and animals. Nutrients in wastewater, usually Nitrogen and phosphorus, may cause unwanted algal and plant growth in rivers and lakes.
Parameter: Measurable factor such as temperature.
Pollutants: Same as contaminants.
Reclamation: Treatment of wastewater for subsequent reuse application or the act of reusing treated water.
Recycling: The reuse of treated wastewater and biosolids for beneficial purposes.
Reunification: Treatment of wastewater to a level suitable for a variety of applications including indirect or direct potable reuse.
Reuse: Beneficial use of reclaimed are re-purified wastewater or stabilized biosolids.
Sludge: Solids removed from wastewater during treatment. Solids that are treated further are called (fermed) biosolids.
Solids: Materials removed from wastewater by gravity separation (by clarifiers, thickeners and lagoons) and is the solid residue from dewatering operations.

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