Radio Frequency Based Wireless Batch Counting Device for Brewery
This project work deals with the design and implementation of an Rf-based wireless batch counting device for a brewery capable of counting the bottled products in the conveyor and displaying the value numerically and wireless to its receiver installed about 100 meters away. This project is realized in two functional units: the transmitter and receiver units. The transmitter unit is installed in the conveyor while the receiver unit is installed at a remote location. They interact by the principle of electrical resonance using a Radiofrequency transmission waveband. An Opto-coupler realized with Light-dependent Resistor (LDR) and Laser diode form the sensor/electronic eye that detects the presence of bottle. The output signal of the sensor unit is processed and used to cause the Tuned Radio Frequency (TRF) transmitter module to radiate an Rf signal to its receiver, some meters away. On receiving the radiated signal, its output is processed and used to clock a 2-digit decimal counting unit that displays the number of counted bottles numerically. This system implies a lot in computers and EEE. As a surveillance system, if the recorded value is not equal to the single unit version also installed in the front end of the conveyor, the workers involved will be fired. This system can only communicate to the receiver over a range of 100m maximum. At the end of every production cycle, if the recorded value on the stand-alone type is less than the value recorded by this system, the workers get queried. The result is a system that can count the number of bottled drinks and relay the number/value wirelessly to a receiver some meters away. It is not microprogram control rather pure random logic.
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 General Description Of The Project 2
1.2 Objectives Of The Study/Project 3
1.3 Significance Of The Project 4
1.4 Scope Of The Project 5
1.5 Project Report Organization 6
2.0 Literature Review 7
2.1 Historical Development Of The Project 7
2.2 Applications Of The Project 9
2.3 Theories And Models Relevant To The Design 10
2.3.1 Electromagnetic Spectrum
(Range And Radio Wave) 10
2.4 Radio Frequency Wave Band 15
2.6 The Seven-Segment Led Display 17
2.6.1 Tuned Class C Amplifiers 19
2.6.2 Transistor Static Switch And
Electromagnetic Relay 21
2.7 Other System Component Description 26
2.7.1 Resistor 26
2.7.3 Capacitor 29
2.7.4 Transformers 32
2.7.5 Junction Diodes 34
2.7.6 Voltage Regulator 78xx 36
3.0 System Design And Analysis 39
3.1 Description Of The System Building Blocks 39
3.2 Block Diagram Development Into
Working Circuit 40
3.4 System Design Specifications 42
3.5 Power Supply Unit 43
3.6 Principle Of Operation Of The System 44
3.7 System Design Calculation 46
3.6.1 Design of the filter capacitor 46
3.6.2 Design Of The Laser Diode 48
3.6.3 Design Of The Transistor static switches 48
4.1 Implementation 51
4.2 Testing 52
4.3 Result 52
4.4 Project Packaging 53
5.0 Problems Encountered, Recommendation 55
5.1 Problem Encountered 55
5.2 Recommendation 56
5.3 Conclusion 57
1.1. Background of the Study
Owing to the high rate of industrial espionage and theft, industrial security techniques need to be improved to arrest/combat pilfering in industries. This project work tries to bring in an improved security measure that can be used to check to pilfer in the Brewery industry. Pilfering bottled drinks is a common theft in Breweries. And this act is perpetrated in the conveyor before a standalone counting device takes account of it. This has a tremendous effect on the stature of the fire – if it is not properly checked, could lead to liquidation and bankruptcy of the firm.
Conventionally, there is a batch counting device that counts the bottled drinks and displays the values numerically at the same spot carrier criminals who pilfer the products divert it before the counter. This chronology in social vices in the brewery industry has motivated me to embark on a project that is capable of counting/the bottled drinks incapable of counting/bottled drinks in the conveyor and displaying the value numerically and wirelessly (using Rf transmission waveband) to its receiver installed about 100m away. This device will count the product before it gets to the standalone version. This technique will help to check to pilfer and bring industrial espionage to halt.
1.2. Problem Statement
Brewery industries all over the world face the problem of pilfering of the products by the workers most frequently in the conveyer. This menace gave way to the development of a stand-alone batch counting device which is usually installed in the conveyors to record the total number of bottled products. This technique is facing serious threat since the bad eggs pilfer/divert the products before it gets to the counter.
Owing to the challenges mentioned above, there is a need to develop a system which will be installed at the entry point of the conveyors to count the products without the consent of the workers and display the value to a receivers unit installed in the manager office using Radio-frequency technology.
1.3. Aims and Objectives
This project aims to design and implement a Radio frequency-based wireless batch counter capable of counting bottled drinks/products and displaying them at a remote location.
1. To develop a system that can communicate using Radiofrequency technology.
2. To develop an optocoupler module that can detect opaque objects like bottles using a laser diode and visible light
3. To develop a 2-digit decimal counting unit that can count from 00-99.
4. To develop a system that is pure hardwired. No micro-program.
5. To develop a power supply unit that can power the Rf device.
1.4. Significance of the Project
This project work signifies a lot in telecom, computer, and electronic engineering it is very useful in several domestic places like in bedrooms and security lamps in the compound. A project of this type if modified can be used as a gate/door opening system, car immobilizer, and for industrial process control. Another vital significance of this system is in the control of Air conditioners refrigerators and other lamps in modern buildings. This system can be used to start and stop a power-generating set from a distance.
1.5. Scope of the Project
This project work covers the following; Tuned Radio-frequency transmitter and receiver modules, Ne555 timer, Decimal counting unit, Decoders and transistors, and electromagnetic relay. It also lays great emphasis on passive and active components used to implement the system. It also x-rays the mode of calculations of the basic parameters used in the design and other areas of application of the device. This report elaborates on the block diagram and principle of operation of the system.
1. This project work is focused on the design and implementation of the Rf batch counter for the brewery.
2. It is a prototype of the real-life system due to the ratings of the components used to implement it.
3. It can only count products in an opaque bottle? (Filled or partially filled).
4. It uses only Radiofrequency to communicate with the receiver.
5. The system is powered using power from MAINS.
6. The receiver displays a maximum of 100 counts (00-99) and does not contain a memory device for the storage of data.
1.7. Project Report Organization
This project report is presented in six chapters to appropriately illustrate the steps involved in its implementation. Chapter one introduces the design overview, objectives, and significance of the project. Chapter two is the literature review and some theories relevant to the design. Chapter three is on the system design analysis while chapter four elaborates on the implementation, testing, and result. Finally, chapter five summarizes the entire thesis and recommendations.
Metha V.K (2009) Principles of Electronics, 11th Ed PWB publications, New Jersey.
Fredrick, W Hughes, (1975) Introduction to Radio Frequency transmission, 2nd Edition. SAMS publications, Pretoria, S.A.
Ronald J. Tocci (2001) Digital systems design principles and applications: 4th edition. Prentice hall New Jersey.
Forest, M. M. Ms III (1985) Electronic sensors circuits and projects; schand publications, U.K.
Kleitz W, (2001) Digital Electronic: A practical approach PWB publications New Jersey.
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