WEB BASED SYSTEM FOR LAND TITLE APPLICATION
1.1 Background of the study
Every country, people, community, race, ethnicity or tribe often guard with great jealousy it land properties. This is so because, it is believed to be an act of up-holding a bequest passed to them by their fathers.
Real estate businesses keep growing day by day, nearly every person dreams of becoming a landlord. Instalment payment offers are all over the print media with several offers and promos on how individuals can own a land or house as the case may be. The ever increasing civilization and development in both urban and rural areas is never-ending thus, business tend to grow to get more land spaces, these growth is repeatedly accompanied with the migration of some people mostly staff of such organizations.
It should also be noted that, land which is said to be a free gift of nature is really not “free”. Land which is also one of the factors of labour is an asset that keeps appreciating day by day.
Government which is a prime institution of any society has the power to withdraw or confiscate a land from any one at any time regardless of the person’s status especially when such land is under government acquisition. Though, the victim of such confiscation may as expected paid “legally” to unauthorized individuals who knowing that such land is under government’s acquisition but took advantage of the innocent buyer. Also, some buyers still go ahead to purchase a land which they somehow have heard is under government’s acquisition. Sometimes, case as such may have a remedy via ratification; while on the other hand, there is really nothing that can be done. In some cases where a piece of land has been sold to more than one person, the parties involves often resolve to court for hearing and judgement. Thus, the persons in question with the finest or best means of proof of ownership often times carry the day.
Having said all of this, it is important that the citizenry know that purchase of a land property is incomplete without the procurement of a land title.
Land has often been continually referred to as a free gift of nature endowed with different mineral resources in it belly. Different countries of the world have different resources embedded in its lands, the Arab Peninsula such as Iran, Iraq, Saudi-Arabia amongst other have lots of crude oil buried under their lands by nature. It should be noted that Nigeria is also one of the richest countries when it comes to minerals resources deposited beneath our land.
Title or Ownership to every property owned by persons or individuals becomes very important because, the title is the only genuine document that can proof real ownership over any property particularly during cases of conflict over property.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Many people in the country has often argued that, like every other act or law the government of Nigeria makes, these laws are always bright and specifically issued to solve a particular problem. But implementation has always been an issue of serious concern. Land is supposed to be owned and managed by the state government.
Undoubtedly, the conventional paper work system of operation in any government department is faced with many setbacks. These setbacks often hamper the overall information system of any setting running it activities solely on manual methods.
On visit to the Ministry of Lands and Housing in Niger state, the following hitches were discovered:
i. Manual method of application for the procurement of C of O.
ii. Time wastage in processing and despatching of land title documents.
iii. Information security: since the number of persons involved in the processing is rather more than necessary, vital information some of which may be “personal” to the applicant may be exposed to a third-party.
iv. Of the three copies of C of O that is obtainable, the copy to be kept by the ministry is kept in an unsafe wooden shelf that decay with time and damage can be done to its content.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the study
The aim of this work is to develop a web-based system for land title application with the following objectives to:
i. analyze the existing manual system and the setbacks associated with it.
ii. to automate the process of applying for certificate of occupancy.
1.4 Significance of the study
Notably, this work will point to the need for a better approach of land title applications especially as it regards C of O. Time spent in processing of land title will be decisively studied, the processes involved will clearly viewed and a more easier and flexible model and approach will be created minding the current procedures that will still be applicable.
1.5 Scope of the study
The proposed system will encompass, the process of applying for a land title, from the stage of survey to the point each applicant gets the certificate of occupancy using Niger State Ministry of Lands and Housing as a case study.
1.6 Limitation of the study
This study is limited to the process of applying for land title as it regards C of O. Documents uploaded during the process of application are subjected to physical verification by the ministry. This system does not capture online payment module for land title processing.
1.7 Definition of terms
C of O: Certificate of Occupancy.
Deeds: this is any type of agreement.
Title: an instrument, such as a deed, that constitutes this evidence.
Act: a formal decision, law, or the like, by a legislature, ruler, court, or other authority; decree or edict; statute; judgment, resolve, or award.
bya: billion years ago
mya: million years ago
Administrator: someone who manages the operation of the system.
User: a person who has the privilege to use the system .
Entity Relationship Diagram: A diagram that shows the relationships that exist between the various relations in the database.