Inhibiting Factors on the Actualization of Community Development Programs
This research is interested in explaining those inhibiting factors on the actualization of community development programs in Badagry Local Government Area, Lagos State, Nigeria. The purpose of this research was to determine the extent, to which socio-cultural factors inhibit the actualization of community development, to access the impact of the population as a determinant factor in the actualization of community development, the influence of literacy on community development programs, and the effect of finance on the actualization of community development programs in Badagry. The Sample Size consisted of 150 respondents drawn from the Badagry community through the Simple Random Sampling Technique. The research instrument used for data collection was a set of structured Questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive and Chi-Square. Findings were made that socio-cultural, population, literacy, and finance profoundly inhibit the actualization of community development programs in the Badagry community, and a Recommendation was made that it is necessary to promote accessibility to educational opportunities at least up to the secondary level to enhance the high rate of participation in the community development program and also population factor is important in socio-economic development; therefore, population considerations should be taken into account at all levels of decision making in community development programs.
1.1 Background to the Study
The transformation of communities to improve their lives has become the main challenge to the economic and social development efforts of developing nations like Nigeria. This challenge arises from the need to promote the welfare of the people of the rural and urban communities so that they could acquire a better standard of living in their homes (Onabanjo, 2004). Badagry Community has been the cradle of development and civilization had witnessed little or no intervention in terms of upgrading its colonial masters left existence. The philosophical view on the acceptance of education as a means to further suffice the foundational development existed by the expatriates which brought lots of changes into various spheres of the life of the people in this area was not duly tapped and had made it very challenging for the people at home to healthily embrace education as an entity that liberates the mind for possible and feasible community and national development.
Community development effort started very early in Badagry before the advent of the colonial master who prostrated the walls of the land compulsorily to conscientise the people by liberating their minds towards development. Missionaries’ activities also contributed to the rehabilitation of the community to achieve aims through the preaching of the Gospel that brought into existence the Nigeria first story building (1845) and other several community development projects; the first primary school in Nigeria called “Nursery of the infant church” in (1843), the first international market, the first church, the first agric school, and the first Teachers’ training school. The town is one of the first to be urbanized in West Africa alongside cities like Cape Town, Gold coast, Benin city, and Free Town with over 30 streets in the 18th century to show but little evidence of early community development existence.
Ever before the advent of the colonial administrations, the Badagry community had employed communal efforts as the mechanism for mobilizing community resources to provide physical improvements and functional facilities in the localities to enhance the social, political, and economic aspects of lives. For example, communal labor was employed in the construction of homesteads, clearing farmlands, and other basic services for Community development.
Some past attempts at rural development failed due to the non-involvement of the essential ingredient of development which is the PEOPLE. This is because Community development is accepted as a veritable instrument for achieving national development. Its program help to realize the potential of the people since it ensures active involvement and participation of the people in the planning and implementation of development projects. The vast majority of the populace is still living devoid of both basic and social amenities. Coupled with this is the acceptance of the fact that meaningful development can only take place when the people are well mobilized for community action.
Despite the government’s efforts to achieve meaningful development at the grassroots, many communities are still in a pathetic state of stagnation and neglect. It must be stated here, that Badagry is still far behind standard contrary to how it is viewed from the outside world. Many community projects were abandoned due to poor planning and management. As a result of this, the community department is not stable in a ministry but is tossed from one ministry to the other depending on the wishes and caprices of the government in power. Lack of concise priority accorded by government officials to community development had been the bane of the menace faced by local communities to accelerate their development. Some major inhibiting factors to the actualization of community development programs in Badagry are; Lukewarm attitude to the maintenance of community development programs, the exodus of people from Badagry to other cities, the wrong belief of the people that the government was capable and should provide all their needs, inadequate funding on the part of individual members, problems of illiteracy, communal clashes among the community members and the neighboring communities.
Badagry community in Lagos state Nigeria is located in Lagos state southwestern region, Nigeria. It is the gateway to the West coast that is, the Border town to other West African countries of Benin Republic, Togo, Ghana, Côte d’Ivoire, Gambia, and Liberia about 57 Kilometers by road from Lagos and it ran parallel to the sea from Porto Novo. Badagry was declared a “TOURIST HEAVEN” by UNESCO. Ever before the declaration of the United Nation Education Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the historic town has often been referred to as the “Pillar of Tourism in Nigeria”.
Despite the enviable potential and revenue generation from tourism, the development of Badagry is due to the involvement of the people has been one of the enduring heritage of traditional African society, such as the Badagry community.
Community development has been a medium used to identify the needs, inhibiting factors, and solutions to such needs. The people have learned how to pull resources together to attend to their needs and solve such needs.
Although some treaties and declarations were signed and entered into between the Akran Badagry, his white-capped high chiefs, and her majesty, the Queen of Great Britain between 1842 to 1864, it because significant that such treaties, for example, the treaty of commerce of 19th June (1861) and the treaty of cession of 7th July (1863) was merely to prepare the ground for the effective and eventual commercial development of Badagry, which was a notable commercial center for such precious commodities like spices, beads and palm produce with attracted sufficient economic activities in the international export trade.
The nature of people participating in community development would have a profound effect on the success of the program, people living in Badagry have a different ethnic backgrounds, with the ever-increasing population of the Badagry community and the different political ideologies due to different political groups.
Also, we all know that funds are scarce especially when we know that man’s needs are unlimited and the current economic constraint faced by the nation in recent years. Unavailability of funds can frustrate whatever development programs have been obtained, no matter how well it has been planned. This may be the most inhibiting factor that may affect the implementation process.
Furthermore, Badagry local government being a border town to many West African countries, experiences of immigrants trooping in and out of the community also contribute tremendously to the inaccurate figure of people living in a particular quarter for well-planned community development programs to suffice in this Areas. Many people’s participation times are also based on ethnic considerations. It would therefore be difficult to gather people because their views will be in the most case divergent. The structure of the society itself is detrimental as it is highly socially stratified and those at the lower level (less privileged) may not want to be involved or participate as ignorance demote their idea towards letting the privileged once have all the say. Those residing in villages like Panko, Erikiti, Ilogbo, Iyaafin, Isalu, Topa, Gberefu, Ganyingbo, Farasime, Agonvi, Agadangba, Ajido to mention but a few had felt little no intervention as regard community development in there against the background that the local government is established and saddled with the responsibility to provide certain social amenities for the grassroots populace.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
The under-development nature of villages in Badagry is evident rather than a mere expression. It is observed that many quarters and streets are deficient in technological and all other means of livelihood, such as electricity supply generated, paper borne water, schools are ill-equipped, and other social services have drastically degenerated with many of the hospitals now “death centers” rather than medical centers while many of the roads are now in deplorable conditions. The number of unemployed youths on the streets has increased drastically and its attendant general restiveness has become a serious menace to both the social and economic development of the community. It is against this, that this study examines the inhibiting factors on the actualization of community development programs in the Badagry community.
1.4 Purpose of the Study
This study was designed to investigate the inhibiting factors on the actualization of community development programs in Badagry community, Lagos State.
Specifically, the purpose of the study was to examine:
1. The effects of Socio-cultural Factors on the actualization of community development programs in the Badagry community.
2. The impact of population on the actualization of community development programs in the Badagry community.
3. The effect of literacy on the actualization of community development programs in the Badagry community.
4. The effect of finance on the actualization of community development programs in the Badagry community.
1.5 Research Questions
1. To what extent do socio-cultural Factors inhibit the actualization of community development programs in the Badagry community?
2. What is the impact of population on the actualization of community development programs in the Badagry community?
3. To what extent does literacy inhibit the actualization of community development programs in the Badagry community?
4. What is the effect of finance on the actualization of community development programs in the Badagry community?
1.6 Significance of the Study
The researcher intends to study the inhibiting factors affecting the actualization of community development programs in Badagry local government and point out such factors that hindered the success of the programs.
This would enhance our knowledge about community development, especially in rural areas, our understanding would go a long way in improving community development in Badagry local government and other complex areas of its nature, as well as community development in general.
1.7 Scope of the Study
As a result of limited and financial constraints, the researcher, therefore, delimits this study to the Badagry community in the Badagry local government area of Lagos State, Nigeria.
1.8 Definition of Relevant Terms
I. Community: – This is a complex social entity that has a physical locus and psychological consensus. It is the basic operational unit or the activity center of many human services to which all the participants in the field constantly identify with address themselves.
II. Development: – This means to gradually bring something to a larger, more complete, and more advanced stage of bringing. It entails physical, social, political, economic, moral, cultural, and educational growth which steadily brings out the full possibilities and potentials of a group.
III. Inhibit: – This is to prevent something from happening or make it happen more slowly or less frequently than normal.
IV. Community Development:– This is the process by which the effort of the people themselves are united with those of the governmental authorities to improve the economic, social, and cultural condition of the community to integrate those communities into the lives of the nation, and to enable them to contribute fully to the national progress.
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