Design and Construction of a Metal Detector

Design and Construction of a Metal Detector – Engineering Project Topics and Materials


The project work is titled Design and construction of a metal detector. When fully design and implemented would be able to detect any metallic material that is passing or coming close. This function would serve as a security check for dangerous metallic material as an alarm. Going by the sophisticated means of armed rubbers adopt these days in the breaking into bank supermarkets offices and highly secured area. No security system will be optimized or complete without the installation of a metal detector. This will stop or reduce to the nearest minimum the activities of men of the underworld. The device we then build functions as a metal detector that can scout out metal objects, such as coins, nails, keys such as car keys you may not be able to find, and even gold if you’re looking for it on a beach (though this one may not have industrial strength). This metal detector can detect certain kinds of metal- especially iron-containing metals, which are called ferrous meat, even if under a half-inch of dry well or sand.



1.1 Background of Study

It has been observed that the rapid growth in technological knowledge across the world has been accompanied by a rapid rise in the crime rate. These criminal acts take the form of breaking of private and official homes and making away with a huge sum of money, valuable and in most cases hosts of lives. The background of this project work comes into play for the removal or minimization of the above criminal act by a way of a METAL DETECTOR, which will be handled or connected to a strategic position in our homes and offices.

Detection and clearance are still very often carried out in humanitarian demining ways using manual methods or computers as primary procedures. When operating in this way, the detection phase still relies heavily on metal detectors, whereby, each alarm needs to be carefully checked until it has been fully understood or its source removed. This is normally done visually and prodding or excavating the ground. Metal detectors are probably going to remain in use for some time.

1.2 Problem Statement

Going by the sophisticated means armed robbers adopt these days in breaking into banks, supermarkets and highly secured areas or the activities of assassins in the conference hall, airport, hospital e.g. there is every indication that they are out for the worst and a better way of lessening the harshness of this menace is to get highly alerted security-wise. No security system will be optimized or complete without the installation of a metal detector. This will stop or reduce the barest minimum, the cases of men of the underworld breaking into banks, hotels, conference halls, homes, hospitals e.t.c systematically undetected.

The exigency of Metal detector involvement in security outfits whether national, sub-national, or domestic level cannot be over-emphasized.

The researcher was motivated to design a project which will demonstrate the indisputable wide use of transistors in the field of electronics to produce the kind of sound that should be able to alert people for special attention and serves as a danger signal in a nutshell.

1.3 Objective of the Project

  1. To construct a walk-through metal detector that is capable of detecting the presence of a metallic device.
  2. The walk-through metal detector world also incorporates the functionality of the metallic object.
  3. The walk-through metal detector will be capable of producing an alarm on the reception of a metallic object.

1.4 Significant of the Project

The significance of this project is to construct a functional electronic detector security system, which will be beneficial technology to human beings. This project will also bring technology nearer home especially to the student, and to me as the designer, and the contribution in the advancement of technology, thus helping them to assemble, design, and construct projects based on simple components and material locally or foreign.

Again, this project will encourage indigenous technology and discourage the large expense being made on foreign security systems. All these were born in mind during the assembling, designing construction, and casing of this project.

1.5 Methodology

This system is developed using several electrical and electronic principles. The principle of electromagnetism is a major principle applied. When the coil which serves as the sensor is placed over metal and the system is switched ON, the electric current passing through the coil makes it magnetic and is placed over a metal, the metal generates a very small voltage (in microvolts) in form of eddy currents. This generated eddy current is received by the sensors and thus it causes a disturbance to the main current flow. The difference is harnessed by electronics and connected to an amplifier from where it is fed into the audio output which serves as the transducer to the system.

1.6 Scope of the Project

The metal detector designed in this project will make use of a technology called Beat Frequency Oscillator (B.F.O). this technology employs two oscillators at resonance and a variation of the frequency of oscillation of one of the oscillators due to the presence of a metallic object would be picked up by a tiny receiver within the control box which creates an audible series of tones (beats) based on the difference between the frequencies.

1.7 Project Outline

The first chapter of this project write-up gives an introduction to the work intended. It discusses a short background of the project work. The specific objectives of the project are also clearly stated. The problem the system is to solve and its significance is also highlighted. The scope of the work is stated here in terms of the parameters to be achieved in the design.

The second chapter of this write-up reviews the related literature of the work. It gives basic insight as to the principle of operation of the system. It also reviews past designs in this field and the results obtained.

The third chapter showcases the design methodology and the explanation of each method employed.

The fourth discusses the actual design of the work. The analysis, assumptions, and mathematical models involved in achieving a complete system design are discussed.

Chapter five deals with the procedures observed in the coupling of the different designs and modules of the work. Also, the result of the finished project after the test and evaluation and conclusion made are stated.

The last chapter contains the conclusion and recommendations made. It also contains the Bill of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation (BEME).

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