This research work examines the factors affecting power outage in Nigeria.

Constants Power supply is the hallmark of a develop economy. Any nation whose energy need is epileptic in supply prolongs her development and risk-losing potential investors.

Nigeria with population of over 120 million people has for the past 40 years of establishment of National Electric Power Authority (NEPA)agency empowered with the electricity generation, transmission and distribution, experience frequent and persistent challenges and problems.

Presently the federal government has embarked on power sector reforms with the aim of improving the unpalatable scenario and in turn reduce the scope of monopoly control of the nations power industry. This work also look at the overall power sector reforms as well as evaluate the opportunities and challenges there and while advocating introduction of management programme by Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN?) a way of improving power supply .




Constant Electricity Power supply is the hallmark of National development with electric emerges the people are empowered to work from the domestic level and the cottage industries through and large scale manufacturing complexes. In these days depriving people of electric power is tan tantamount to risk of losing potential investors and also prolong development.

The Power generation can be through one of the following sources of energy coal, oil or natural gas, hydro power (water turbine), nuclear power (stream turbine), solar-wind or water wave turbine, solar thermal generator, solar voltaic generator, coal, oil, gas and hydro Power are abundant in Nigeria.

Presently Nigeria Mostly employ gas fired and hydroelectric Power bring that oil is too expensive and coal-fired station have gone moribund the maximum Power consumption or peak demand depends on the population and industrialization of a country. If the maximum supply meets the peak demand there is a surplus otherwise there is a shortfall.

However, in Nigeria, the Power supply system is run with a shortfall as demand tends to exceeds supply.

The power holding company of Nigeria (PHCN) is responsible for generating, transmitting distributing and sells electric power to various consumers across the country. A major objective of PHCN naturally has been to provide regular and uninterrupted power supply to electricity consumer nationwide.

There has been study of power supply systems as well as various aspects of their operations, however very few have investigates and documented in learned journals the counterpart (factor affecting) of the system in Nigeria. The establishment and the growth of electricity in Nigeria dates back as far as 1896 when it was first produce in Lagos, fifteen years after its introduction in England (Niger. Power Review, 1985). The total capacity of the generation used then was 60KW. In other words the maximum demand in 1896 was less than 60KW and then in 1946 the Nigeria government electricity undertaking was established under the jurisdiction of the responsibility of (PWD) to take over the responsibility of electricity supply in Lagos State. And in 1950 a central body was established by the legislative council which transferred electricity supply and development of the care of the body known as the electricity corporation of Nigeria (ECN). Other bodies like native Authorities and the Nigerian Electricity Supply Company (NESCO) had licenses to produced electricity in some locations in Nigeria.

Another body known as Niger Dams Authority (NDA) which was established by an Act of parliament the Authority was responsible for the construction and maintenance of dams and other works on the River Niger and elsewhere generating electricity by means of water Power, improving navigation and promoting fish brines and irrigation the electricity produced by NDA was bold to ECN for distribution and sales at unity voltage.

In April 1972, the operation of ECN/NDA were merged in anew organization known as the National Electric Power Authority (NEPA) since ECN was mainly responsible for distribution and sales and NDA was created to build and run-generating station and transmission lines, the primary aim for merging the organization were (Niger Power Review 1989)

The capacity in Kilowatt generated by each of the generating system inv various part of the country (Nigeria) has also been studied. The work which also examined the Nigerian Electricity marked and found that the annual growth rate of electricity average about 18 percent still had low electricity consumption of 60KWH capita (1979 figure) which is less than 1 percent of industrialized countries. The work however pointed out that the low consumption capita in Nigeria is due to the fact that over 80 percent of the population normally resides in the rural area where they have no access to electricity as well as low level of industrialization.

The solar and wind energy resource in Nigeria was investigated and found that the annual mean of solar meter square and global radiation is as high as 24mj per meter squared per day due to it good geographical location latitude 4 degree and 14 degree north of the equator. Nigeria’s Power Company-Power Holding Company of Nigeria has an installed generating capacity of about 6GW but actual available output is less than 2.5GW Power outage (black out) is frequent.

1.2 Aims and Objectives of the Study

This Paper looks into some recent major Power outage in Nigeria and adequate examined the root causes and dynamic of this problem and possible recommendations for possible solution.

1.3 Significance of the Study

Electricity as a source of energy is vital to the growth and development of any economy. Its significance arises from the impact it has on infrastructure, a range of socio-economic activities and consequently on the country’s standard of living. This means that transportation, communication, construction, and other facilities depend on electricity to function effectively. Electricity has continued to play a significance role in the development process. In the Nigerian situation the reverse appears to be the case because Power outages have continued to affect the country’s development. Some have argued that privatizing electricity supply through the unbundling of power generation arm of National Electric Power Authority (NEPA) Now Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) will ensure its efficiency . Despite this reform, electricity supply I still rationed to the consumers in ways that are still grossly inadequate.

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