The Use of Local Pigments and Extenders for Formulation and Production of Emulsion Paint

Formulation and Production of Emulsion Paint


The primary aim of this project research work is to produce emulsion paint from locally sourced pigment & extenders.

The materials used for the production were from a local source.

The primary raw materials used for the emulsion paint: are water, titanium iv oxide, calcium carbonate, kaolin, Calgon, aerosol, biocide P.V.A, ammonia, deformer (Ginap) kerosene, yellow iron oxide, and red iron oxide.

Emulsion paint of two (2) samples were produced, and calcium carbonate locally obtained was used in larger quantities to reduce the cost of production of the paint with little of the expensive titanium iv oxide added.

The first sample was a creamy white color paint, while the second sample resulted from a mixture of locally sourced yellow and red iron oxide. The pigment was added to it. The two (2) samples gave high-quality emulsion paints regarding their brush ability, opacity, coverage, stability, etc.

Quality control test carried out on the two (2) samples of emulsion paint showed that the local pigment and extenders used (titanium iv oxide, calcium trioxocarbonate iv, kaoline, yellow iron oxide, and red iron oxide) fitted in so well in the paints to give the necessary adhesion, opacity, and coverage, with the excellent binding effect observed.



1.0 Introduction
1.1 Objectives of the research project
1.2 Scope of research work
1.3 Significance of the study


2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Historical review of the paint industry
2.2 Outline of paint technology
2.3 Paint types
2.3.1 Emulsion (water-based) paint
2.3.2 Latex paint
2.3.3 Whitewash
2.3.4 Case in paint
2.3.5 Cement paint
2.3.6 Linseed emulsion paint
2.3.7 Gloss (oil) paint
2.3.8 Enamels
2.3.9 Traffic paints
2.3.10 Making paints
2.4 Specialties
2.4.1 Fire-retardation paints
2.4.2 Aerosol colors
2.4.3 Insecticide paint
2.5 Paint composition and formulation
2.5.1 Resins (film formers)
2.5.2 Solvents
2.5.3 Pigments and extenders
2.6 Exterior building paints – formulation
2.7 Paint qualities and quality control
2.8 Description of raw materials for paint manufacture


3.0 Method of paint formulation
3.1 Raw materials for paint formulation
3.2 Raw materials for emulsion paint formulation
3.3 Functions of the raw materials
3.4 Formulation of emulsion paint
3.5 Principles of paint formulation
3.5.1 Pigment to binder ratio
3.5.2 Pigment volume concentration (PVC)
3.5.3 Solid content
3.5.4 Weight per volume
3.6 Process flow diagram (sheet) for the production of emulsion paint
3.7 Block flow diagram for production of emulsion paint
3.8 Formula for samples selection


4.0 Quality control test
4.1 Types of equipment for quality control test
4.2 Quality control tests and results


5.0 Economic evaluation
5.1 Costing for sample A
5.2 Costing for formulation B
5.3 Profitability analysis
5.4 Break-even analysis


6.1 Discussion
6.2 Conclusion
6.3 Recommendation

Appendix 1

The son standard specification and the test properties of the samples
Appendix 2
The formulation for sample A
Appendix 3
The formulation for sample B
Appendix 4
Manufacture of titanium dioxide from its local ore (ILMENITE)



Paint is a fluid or semi-fluid material that may be applied to surfaces in relatively thin layers and changes to a solid coating with time. The coating with time. The change to a solid material may or may not be reversible and may occur by evaporation of solvent by chemical reaction or by a combination of the two.

Paints usually consist of a vehicle or binder, a pigment that contributes obscurities, color, hardness, and bulk to the film, and a solvent or thinner, which controls the consistency.

Paint is classified into two, which are gloss paint and emulsion paint.


These paints may be classified according to whether the drying mechanism is predominantly solvent evaporation, oxidation, or some chemical reaction. Gloss paints which dry essentially by solvent evaporation, rely on a reasonably hard resin as the vehicle.

For paints that dry by oxidation, the vehicle is usually an oil or an oil-based varnish, usually containing driers to accelerate the drying of the oil. Paint based essentially on oil with suitable pigments, such as titanium dioxide, extenders, and usually zinc–oxide and white lead, are conventional outside-house paints because these materials give the combination of properties that meet this requirement.


These are paints with water-soluble vehicles, including calcimines, in which the vehicle is glued, and casein paints, in which the vehicle is casein or soybean protein.

This project research study is directed toward producing and formulating emulsion paint (water–thinned paint) from local pigments and extenders as raw materials. The high demand for emulsion paint for protective and decorative purposes has encouraged the development of different types of equipment for manufacturing operations.

This research work is due to reduce the high cost of emulsion paint formulation and production because of the imported raw materials. (e.g. Titanium dioxide), and thereby disclosing a local raw material from our natural domain, which could also be used for the same purpose. An example of this locally obtained raw material for emulsion paint production is calcium carbonate in calcite and dolomite.


The objectives of the research project work are to study the formulation and production of emulsion paint with the use of local pigments and extenders as raw materials and its economic value and also disclose some locally sourced materials from our local environment that could play the same role with the imported raw materials that are used for emulsion paint production, which causes the cost of emulsion paint production to be high.

However, an industrial survey reveals that paint manufacturers in Nigeria look beyond the country’s territory for supply. The Nigerian paints industry is characterized by importation, starting from solvents that could be obtained in abundance from the country.


The scope of this research project is organized to cover all vital aspects of emulsion paint formulation and production using local pigment and extenders as raw materials from our local environment, which will reduce the cost of emulsion paint production.

The scope will also cover paint types and classifications, paints’ characterization and functions, and chemicals used in the formulation and production of emulsion paint. However, emphasis will be laid on the systematic procedure of processing the local pigments and extenders used, which will also cover the following:

1. Emulsion paint formulation and production

2. Run-rest on the following properties of emulsion paint

3. Drying time

4. Nature of reversibility

5. PH value

6. Specific gravity

7. Obscurity

8. Viscosity

9. Resistance to external exposure

10. Brush ability


Considering the high cost of imported raw materials for the production of emulsion paint in the paint industry, which at the end of the product affects the market price, likewise causing the economy to constrain, there is a need to look out for those locally raw materials such as pigments and extenders (e.g., calcium carbonate) which will give such desirable qualities and properties as those of imported raw materials (e.g., Titanium Dioxide).

It will be interesting to note that Chemical Engineering has some possible solutions for the reduction of the high cost of emulsion paint production, and also this research project work is directed towards the vital need for the use of local pigments and extenders as raw materials for the production of emulsion paint of high quality and standards which will stand the test of time and also compete with those emulsion paints produced with imported raw materials.

Finally, this research project work will be of more importance to the paint manufacturers in the country, who spend lots of money on importations of raw materials, while they are blessed with many raw materials as pigments and extenders for emulsion paint production in their country, it will also be of help to students researchers, and also reveals the importance of research among producers for future betterment and economy improvement.


Table 2.1- formulation (for exterior building paint).

  Raw materials Percentage proportion (w/w)
1. Dispersing agent 1.32
2. Derformer 0.18
3. Water 5.12
4. Titanium dioxide 22.10
5. Extender pigment 10.30
6. Acrylic latex (40% nonvolatile). 0.80
7. Preservative 0.18
8 Hydroxyethylcellulose 20% aq.  Solution 4.40
9. Ethylene glycol 2.20
  TOTAL 100.00


C.R. Martens (1968) “Technology of Paint Vanishes and Leaguers” New York Reinhold Book Corporation.

G.P.A Turner (1967) “Introduction to Paint Chemistry, London Chapman and Hall.

Kirk, R.E. and other O.E (1969) “Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology”, Vol.4 and 9: The Inter Science Encyclopedia, Inc, New York.

L.A. Jordan (1951) “Oils for Paint Industry”, 1st Edition, T.S Gilford, Kingston – Upon – Thames.

Nigeria Industry Standard (1989) “Standards for Paints and Vanishes” Part 5: Specifications for Emulsion paints for Decorative Purposes Standard Organisation of Nigeria (SON); Federal Secretariat Ikoyi, Lagos N15 269, UDC 667.6

W.M. Morgans (1990) “Outlines of Paint Technology” 3rd Edition. Hodder and Stoughton Limited, London.

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