Newspaper Readership Pattern Among Nigerian Youths
(A Case Study of IMT Students)
This study was carried out to determine the newspaper readership pattern among youths. This arose because it was thought that the youth did not read newspapers and their use of other media was minimal.
Against the background of seeming lack of readership among the youth. Questionnaires draw administered to ascertain the extent of reading habits formed by this group.
The student of the Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu were used as a focus. This was a good sample as they represent the youth found all over the country.
They all experience similar socio-economic dilemmas. They also face similar financial as well as education problems experienced in the nation. 250 respondents were sampled randomly and data were analyzed and presented as percentages in frequency distribution tables. The work traced the reading habit found among the youth. Researcher questions and hypotheses were used as a guide for analysis and conclusion respecting.
The work reviewed other literature on the topic and found out what their results were the conclusions down were based both on other related work of literature and the results gathered from the questionnaire. The result showed that there were indeed readership patterns among the youth
They showed that students read newspapers and they also bought the majority of respondents bought or read. Results also showed that students who bought were both more financially and academically favored than others that had a lower reading habit. It was also found out that sex was no barrier to who read and what was read. The female students read more than the male student but they both read the same content in their favorite newspapers. Male youths read entertainment news in equal proportion with the female youth. There was also equal reading proportion in contents that have to do end at the study, recommendations were made about activities that will help the youth develop a readership and use a pattern for the newspaper and other media.
TABLES OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of Study
1.2 Problem Statement
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Significance of Study
1.5 Research questions
1.6 Research Hypothesis
1.7 Definition of Terms
1.9 Limitation of the study
2.1 Sources of literature Review
2.2 Literature Review
2.3 Summary of Literature Review
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Method
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Research sample
3.4 Measuring Instrument
3.5 Data Collection
3.6 Data Analysis
3.7 Expected Results
CHAPTER FOUR- DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
4.1 Data Analysis
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The population explosion of youth in Nigeria generally has been a cause of interest to economists as they study consumerism. This branch of economics helps in understanding consumer patterns.
Communication, as old as man, being what it is, is very vital to the growth and development of the psycho-social make-up of man. This in turn equips man in fitting into healthy patterns, modeled for definite objectives in national polity.
The background against which this study is being got up include; issues like literacy level, interest in the role of newspapers (Newspaper Consciousness) for the development of man, factors that influence choice/preference of man, factors that influence choice/preference of news contents, sex-dependent variables among the study of age brackets, etc. it is given this that a remote understanding of the history and principles of communication is vital to this study.
Since the existence of man varying forms of communication have been invented or rediscovered. These include interpersonal, group public, and mass communication, each characterized by peculiar channels of information dissemination. The channel has further been modified and divided inter radio, books, etc.
The Newspaper being one modified channel of information dissemination present the element of research for this study. Newspaper with its vital role in the development of man has changed both content and form to satisfy man’s consciousness in search of information. It is worthy to mention that information messages in newspapers are structural to the readership pattern of the cross-section of the society.
The mechanics of communication which include pictures, cartoons, and literate information become a remote but powerful factor in creating the interesting pool from which a semi-pattern consequently emerges.
The principle of communication applied in this work emphasizes only the laws of efficient communication, some of which are good grammar and syntax, appropriate use of literary devices that are not, etc.
The above subject quickly recommends themselves to the intelligence quittance of any readership. This forms the determinant in newspaper consciousness as it is well understood that over and above policy at payees of contents is fundamental to habit-forming. A highly literate as well as versed section of the society can be the seemingly meaningless black print into a fabric of pleasure b because of the level of exposure to the elements of literary appreciation.
In the present work, the word readership pattern is understood as the cross-section of the society that finds time out of interest and habits to indulge in the act of gathering information from newspapers. This understanding is only elementary as further into the work readership assumes a wider scope. The present study will seek to compare the subject matter from the background of a more complex definition. Given this, readership among the youth in general and students of the Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu in particular, presents a particular, phenomenon that arouses interest.
More serious emphasis is laid on habit-orientated readership patterns- a pattern that is sustaining. This is not to say that this readership pattern influence positively than this demand and supply curve. Both readership patterns confine with complexity. And this is what influences the demand and supply.
An easily recognizable or predictable trend creates comparisons that are made to create a model hypothesis that will help in decision-making. Last but not the least, comparative are here referee to the relationship existing between understudied elements from the background of stocktaking.
In comparison presented in this work, a comparison model has been created are got.
The following are the comparison models employed in this work:
(a) Sex-oriented comparison model.
(b) Age oriented comparison model
(c) Finance oriented comparison model
(d) Education oriented comparison model
(e) Popular trend-oriented comparison model
(f) Political oriented comparison model
(g) Religious conviction oriented comparison model
A. SEX ORIENTED COMPARISON MODEL
There is no point in doubting the fact that, gender goes a long way to determine emotional responses to news content. It is given this that the study seeks to investigate the determining factors that make particular sex to be more or less responsive to male-female ratio among the student’s readership will be determined and critically studied.
B. AGE ORIENTED COMPARISON MODEL
From an earlier assertion, the age brackets have been defined among which this study is to be undertaken namely.
16 to 26 years to discover the more responsive age group among these brackets. A bird view of the problem anticipated under this model is that hypothetically, the upper age bracket appears to be more responsive for reasons that may be stated from the questionnaire whereas the lower group for other peculiar reasons hypothetically may be less responsive to the reading of newspapers.
C. FINANCE ORIENTED COMPARISON MODEL
It is no secret in economics that as people’s spending powers grow with their standard of living; they can more easily afford to indulge in fewer “necessaries”. If will not be out of place for a hungry man to spend his last Nzo for a lunch then buy a newspaper and go hungry. This becomes more acute with students who always run budget-line.
D. EDUCATION ORIENTED COMPARISON MODEL
All things being equal, the more educated one is, the easier it is for him to appreciate as well as extracting information from the newspaper hence one’s level of education, in this case, the student goes a long way to determine and habit in newspaper indulgence.
E. POPULAR TREND ORIENTED COMARISON MODEL
This is a less serious model as it is not sustaining. Nevertheless, when its cycle comes up, it can be quite impressive.
By trend, we mean a particular response due to a bias in society. An example of a trend could be seen in old early country Newspaper pictures of the English gentry where it is fashionable and popular to take snapshots with newspaper or folding.
E. POLITICS ORIENTED COMPARISON MODEL
Nationalism and patriotism can compel ardent readership from patriots as they prefer their local newspaper to better produced but foreign newspapers.
It is under such a model that we see customer ship done to the certain newspaper that advances the cause of independence.
G. RELIGIOUS CONVICTION ORIENTED MODEL
Under this model, we find people who for one religious conviction or the other prefer some kind of news content in a newspaper. Which presence may persuade or dissuade them from doing custom to newspaper publishers.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Research is done to identify a problem. Hence the identification of these problems gives direction to research works in this case the problems that led us into research are media
1. Media illiteracy as an impediment to Newspaper consumption among Nigerian youths.
2. financial difficulties that are facing Nigerian youth which in turn stand as an obstacle to Newspaper consumption.
3. the problem associated with the reading habit among Nigeria youths.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The aim of embarking on this study was prompted by an observation made by earlier researchers that the youths are generally not information conscious and it is only the males among the youths, that try at all to obtain information, specifically through the print media like newspapers.
This study wants to know if summaries and conclusions of other works are also applicable to youths with a high level of educational exposure. The work wants to find out if the new socio-economic status of the females, their new political awareness orientations have affected their readership pattern.
It also aims at finding out if it is only the female youths that still read entertainment and family-based materials in newspapers or if the males have been affected by changes in the society and why their sudden interest.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The result of this study will help editors editor of different newspapers to know the demography of their audience. With the results obtained, they will know what material to retain or remove from their news content.
The study will help to find out the problems the youth grapple with, that have made them lose interest in bunny and reading newspapers. It will also help editors know how to reach out to the young generation to create a good reading habit in them. The project will help editors know how to reach out to the young generation to create a good reading habit in them. The project will help editors and publishers know the psychological disposition of information dissemination.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Do educational and financial positions affect newspaper readership among youth?
2. Do male youth read more newspapers than female youths?
3. Do female youths and more entertainment news than male youths?
4. Does age affect newspaper readership among Nigerian youth?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
1. Hi Educational and Financial positions affect newspaper readership among youths.
Ho: Education and financial position do not affect newspaper readership among youths.
2. H2: Male youths are more newspaper readers than male youths.
Ho: Female youths are more newspaper readers than male youths.
H3: Female youths read entertainment material than female youths.
Ho: Male youths read entrainment material than female youths.
H4: Age as a factor affects newspaper readership among the youths.
Ho: Age as a factor is not affecting newspaper readership among the youths.
Does age affect newspaper readership among the youths?
CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL
1.7 DEFINITION CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION OF TERMS:
PATTERN: Away, in which something happens, moves, develops or is arranged.
NEWSPAPER: Apart from printed daily or weekly containing news material.
READERSHIP: the number or type of readers of a newspaper, magazine, etc or a particular writer
YOUTH: The time when a person is young, especially the time before the child becomes an adult.
SEX: This means being male or female.
NEWSPAPER CONTENT: subject matter in Newspaper.
Newspaper: The printed allies e.g punch, daily champion, vanguard, sum, etc
Pattern: The level consumption (e.g daily, weekly, occasional, etc.
Youth: Relating to the age that consumed the newspaper, e.g 16-25, 25-30 years, etc
Newspaper Content: These are contained in the volume of news, articles, adverts, Arts, fashion, foreign news, etc
YOUTH: This word includes children and young people of both sexes. It also involves the status classification of children and young adults.
SEX: This means differences that exist between males and females. This term as well means the total at characteristics, which distinguish male from female.
NEWSPAPER CONTENT: This means that which is contained in the volume of a newspaper. The amount of substance of work a newspaper can hold for example fashion etc.
Male and Female students of the Institute of Management and Technology, (IMT) Enugu, are literate. The students possess a similarity of psychological as well as other dispositions with the rest of the youths that live in the country. Also, they have equal access to newspapers both financially and otherwise.
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