Medical & Health Science

Comparative Analysis of Pipe Borne Water and Other Sources of Water Within Enugu Metropolis

Comparative Analysis of Pipe Borne Water and Other Sources of Water Within Enugu Metropolis


Comparative analysis of water was carried out on well water, stream and pipe born water obviated within Emene locality of Enugu state the sample were subjected to some analytical tests final like presumptive tests, comfirmative test final like presumptive tests, comfirmative test, completed test, indole test and plate count for the organism that develop on the culture, the result show that well water and stream were found to contain pathogenic organism like salmonella, Shigella and staphylococcus aureus as well as numerous viable counts, the cloform or the indicator organisms Escherichia coli the family of enterbactercteriaceae were isolated too form well water the pipe borne water a sample contained staphylococcus aureus and have lowtotal viable counts.




1.1 Aims and objective
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Hypothesis
1.4 Significance of study
1.5 Limitations
2.1 water analysis
3.1 Sample collection
3.2 Preparation of media
3.3 Sterilization of materials
3.4 Multiple tubes technique
3.5 Presumptive test
3.6 Confirmed test
3.7 Completed test
3.8 Test for indole
3.9 Methyl red test
3.10 Oxidase test
3.1.1 catalse test
3.12 plate counts techniques
3.13 preparation of single and double strength media
3.14 dilution technique in most problem number `
3.15 Inoculation of media with water samoltes


4.1 Colony counts
4.2 Most problem number (mpn) and pH result.
5.0 Chapter five. Discussion an
5.1 Discussion
5.2 Recommendation
5.3 Conclusion
6.0 references


Table I comparative guality of ground water and surface water
Table II colony count result
Table III MPN and PH result
Table IV the MPN of coliform in the dilution
Table V the physiological biochemical of the isolated organisms
List of figures
Fig I culture plate picture
Fig II isolated micro organisms and shape



Following the theory of creation, it is clear that water is as old as man. From time immemorial, man has restored to the use of this unique commodity for domestic and other purposes.

Most of our water supplies are from surface water which include: rivers, streams, lakes, oceans and seas and there water bodies are likely to be polluted with domestic and Industrial as well as agriculture waste, As populations increase, the problem become more serious and as such, water can endanger the health and life of human beings because when polluted by fecal materials it becomes potential carrier of pathogenic organism (Carpenter 1977).

Water, is of course, absolutely essential to life, not only human life but all life, animal and vegetable. Most of the biochemical reaction that occur in metabolism and growth of living cells involved water, and all take places in water. (Camp et al,1974).

Man uses water not only for drinking purposes but also for bathing, washing, laundering, heating, air conditioning, agriculture, stock raising and gardens, Industrial processes and cooling water power and steam power, fire protection, fishing, swimming and wild life propagation and navigation.

Natural water contain not only then natural flora but also microorganisms from soil and possible from animals or sewage. Surface waters in streams or pools and stored waters in lakes and large ponds vary considerably in microbial content. (frazier 1978) water is broadly divided into three types viz., surface water which include: streams, rivers, lakes sear, and oceans Kelman et al (1957).

The ground water, well borehole, many people have defined the ground water in different ways: groundwater is subter water that occurs where all pores in the soil or rock counting materials are saturated (pelzer et al 1992).

The atmospheric water, which includes rain, falls. All water bodies consist of a variety of bacterial and other microorganisms like the Algaes fungi, which inhabit these natural water bodies. Some of these microorganisms are indigenous to thus natural water while others are transient, entering the water from external environment (Pelezar and Reg, 1997).

The generality of bacteria are mostly commonly found ordinarily in fresh water some of which include: pseudomonas, Archaebacteria, and vibrio these are gram negative, the gram-positive bacterial which are found in water include: micrococcus Archaebacteria and actinomycetes. Gebharal (1975) Tap water, as one of the water sources is mostly used domestically, it is observed that tap change sometime the water tap will be clear this calls for load, in order to be sure of its portability. Bonde (1977).

The increase in drinking water from different sources especially in Enugu state has made necessary to investigate the microbial content of water. Water is a potential carried of pathogenic organisms that can endanger human life. Most of drinking water sources are often contaminated with different pollutants like faces, animal and plant wastes, making such water unfit for drinking if not treated. The pollution of water with pathogenic organisms and other pollutants can only be detected by carrying out microbiological assessment of such water. Most human disease such as typhoid paratyphoid cholera, amoebiasis, Trichinosis, gastroenteritis, sanon all shigellosis, diphtheria, giada, dracunculus etc are know to be water borne disease. Ewington et al (1971).

Water born disease are those disease which have water as their vehicle of transmission these disease are capable of destroying a whole community if not checked. Therefore, the quickest ways to prevent out break of these disease and to determine the portability of such water sources is to determine the microbial load or content if the microbial content is nor within acceptable limit, such water sources should be condemned immediately. Fair et al (1970)


I. To find out if well, stream, Tap water contain pathogens.

II. To help the public to know the danger of drinking these water without adequate treatment.

III. To compare the microbial load of the water source and advice on safer source of water.


These source of water are contaminated through one way or the other
(i) The short falls in the distribution of treated pipe borne water leads people to resort to alternative source of water which may be unfit for human consumption
(ii) Tap water can be polluted through leakage/ improper plumbing.
(iii) Well water is contaminated as a result of running off into it, especially shallow well.
(iv) Streams can be contaminated through waste from industries, leaves, dust, and rain run often.


1. HO- pathogenic bacteria are present in water

2. H1- pathogenic bacteria are not present in water

3. Hiii- The level of pathogenic organism in water can cause water borne infection

4. Hilo The level of pathogenic organism in water can not cause watt born infection.


1) The study will advice on water meet the standard quality required for any particular purpose.

2) Also advice the eswc on quality of their product. For future nature modification of treatment methods.