Sample Survey on the Use of Contraceptives Drugs Among Female Students of Faculty of Science
1.0 GENERAL INTRODUCTION
All over the world statement, thinkers and demographers have been concerned with the rapid growth of the population rate in the last four decades. A current rate of growth. The world population as of 21 May 2010; the human population of the world is estimated by the United States Census Bureau to be 6822, 200,000. Annual birth has leveled at about 134 million per year since their peak at 163 million in the late 1990s and an expected to remain constant. However, deaths are only around 57 million per year and are expected to increase to 90 million by 2050, because births outnumber deaths, the world’s population is expected to reach 90 million between 2040 and 2050. The rapid increase in human population over the 20th Century has raised concerns about whether the earth is experiencing overpopulation and scientific consensus that is the current population expansion and accompanying increases in usage of resources are linked to threats to the ecosystem. Since the rising level of atmosphere Carbon oxide, global warming, and pollution.
Due to this pace of growth, strategies were undertaken to curb the problem. This led to the emergency of the “Contraceptive” drug. Other terms commonly used include birth control, fertility regulation, Planned Parenthood, and responsive parenthood, Huge amount has been spent on family planning and family planning programs just in a bid to popularize its importance and adoption in a tertiary institution. Therefore, it is expected that there is widespread knowledge of contraceptive drugs among adolescents, especially female students. Although the adoption of their information varies, some have interesting and positive attitudes due to passive orientation while others see the usefulness and go-ahead to practice it. Sexual activity is particularly high among unmarried youth and those who happen to use contraceptives and those who did not use with social concern in mind but more for personal reasons such as to avoid illegitimate births. Contraceptive drugs should not only be seen in the view of population reduction alone but also in line with the misfortune that is associated with indiscriminate sexual intercourse.
A growing population of adolescents not only initiates sexual intercourse at early stages but also engages in having multiple sexual partners. Hence a high incidence of illegally induced abortion. In most cases, restrictions on abortion force women to rely on illegal abortion, and as most young people are poor, they often use unqualified abortionists, which leads to frequent severer health consequences such as sterility and death. It is therefore time for society to recognize that the health and even the lives of its young ladies must not be sacrificed in an attempt in an attempt to prevent their sexual activity. In most developing countries young ladies get married later and more start sex before marriage. This exposes them to the risk of unwanted pregnancy and unwanted sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including HIV/AIDS. In these countries, 20% to 60% of young women’s pregnancies and births are unwanted most coming sooner than planned. These pregnancies put young women’s health at risk through childbearing or unsafe abortion. Increasingly, early parenthood means lost education as well as the lifelong loss of earnings. Evidence in Nigeria shows that induced abortion increasing and is considered to be a major cause of maternal mortality which is quite high in Nigeria. The question to ask ourselves now is, has the introduction of contraceptive use in any way helped to stem the rate of unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among women especially female students in tertiary institutions? The answer to this question abore is not affirmative.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF SURVEY AREA
The Osun State Polytechnic, Iree was established on 12th October 1992. it was one of the satellite campuses of the Polytechnic Ibadan before it become an autonomous institution. The faculty of science was one of the structures inherited from the Polytechnic Ibadan before being developed to meet its present status. At the inception, the faculty consists of the following departments namely; Science Laboratory Technology Computer Science Mathematics and Statistics Later Food Science and Technology and Applied Science were established but very recently, the computer science department was reshuffled to another newly created faculty, the faculty of information and communication technology. It is however pertinent to state that the faculty of science is one of the oldest faculties in the institution and its importance to the polytechnic system is undoubtfully enormous. It is robust intellectually socially and politically. The faculty of science is the oldest faculty of the six existing faculties in the institution; the faculty is playing an important role in the institution and the nation as a whole because of its contribution to academic and technological advancements. The faculty consists of five departments, namely the Department of Applied science, Food science and technology, Mathematics and statistical, Microbiology, and Department of science laboratory technology.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. To determine if there exists a linear correlation among the different departments of the faculty of science and the use of contraceptives.
2. To know the best method to be used between the measure of central tendency and the stratified techniques.
3. To test for the significant difference that exists between students and the attitude towards contraceptive use.
1.3 PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED DURING DATA COLLECTION
At the inception of this work, I envisaged little problem to arise knowing that the people deal with is highly educated ones. The major problem that was encountered was resistance from a few ones to fill the questionnaire but due to a little encouragement and enlightenment, some saw the topic as very interesting, while some still showed embarrassment. A few numbers of the respondents gave religious reasons for the non-response to some questions. Some female respondents, especially some ignore some of the questions because of their nature. Another major problem that was encountered includes those of non-response and missing questionnaires. Having followed them up for about 4 days in their department to retrieve the questionnaire but due to carelessness on their part explained how it got missed during rush hours of class and lecture period. Although I anticipated a 5% loss. However, many of these constraints were overcome by patience and humility on the part of the researcher to ensure that we can be sure of a reliable and scientific enterprise.
1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of embarking on this project is for the benefit of the student, society, government, etc. This motivated me to do work on a sample survey to show that survey work is good in enumerating the number of students that are using contraceptive drugs among female students especially excerpt people that are using it in the faculty of science.
1.5 DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES
In eliciting information, the method used was the questionnaire. A core comparable question already developed and tested in the form of a questionnaire was employed. One hundred copies of the questionnaire were printed and administered in different departments of the faculty of science in the polytechnic. These included departments of mathematics & statistics, food science technology, microbiology, applied chemistry, and science laboratory technology. The distribution of the questionnaire was mostly done by the researcher himself, although with the help of two of his friends. The questionnaire contained 31 questions which were divided into 2 main sections, personal data and knowledge or altitude of students towards contraceptives. About 13 of the questions were closed-ended and 15 open-ended. This was inevitable due to the nature of the research in studying their attitude toward contractive drugs. To ensure that respondents fill free to answer the question the name of the respondents was not required.
1.6 JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY
Contraceptive as a method or means of reducing family size is an issue that almost everybody knows about. To ensure that every grown-up man and woman use it will be nothing but hyperbolizing the concept. The knowledge of contraceptives does not however lead invariably to the adoption of contraception. It is therefore essential to develop effective programs that provide accurate reproductive health information and useful services to young people who have been largely left out of the family planning revolution. Young ladies therefore should both be guided and encouraged to postpone sex or provide them necessary effective method of contraceptive. Although many people think that providing family planning services to youth will promote promiscuity.
There is no evidence for that yet. The high incidence of premarital sexuality is attributable to increasing moral attitudes and the slacking blocking of the traditional requirement for the premarital casualty. An ever-increasing number of adolescents migrate from rural homes to urban centers in search of job opportunities for higher learning or apprenticeship, this breaking away from constraints traditionally applied by family members and village communicates, evidence from 2009 (Nigeria Demographical Health Survey (NDHS) has not only confirmed the high incidence of premarital sexuality in urban centers but also has revealed that the incidence of premarital sexual behavior is not limited to urban centers. These youth typically engage in sexual relations without contemplating the dangerous consequences which include unwanted pregnancies, abortions, AIDS (Acquired Immunes Deficiency Syndrome), and other sexually transmitted diseases. In response to these issues the International community at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in 2009, for the trust time recognized formally that adolescent reproductive and sexual health involves a specific set of needs distinct from adult needs. The ICPD also stressed that previously health services have largely ignored young people’s needs consequently the program of action emphasized that young people of both sexes are typically poorly informed about how to protect themselves from unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases as mentioned earlier. Therefore, this suggests the need to provide young people with comprehensive information and access to services in the country. It is however on this basis that this research was designed to ineptly study the positive and negative attitudes of students have towards the use of contraceptive drugs.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS USED IN THE PROJECT
Stratified Sampling: It can be explained as a random sample, which is obtained by separating the population elements or units into non-overlapping group culled strata and then selecting a simple random sample from each stratum.
Multiple Correlations: This is the degree of relationship that exists between three or more variables X1 X2 X3 represent the variables under consideration. Then we can let X11 X12 X13 ……. Represent or denote the values assumed by the variables X1 and X21, X22, X23 denotes the value assumed by the variables X2 and so on. With this notation a sum as X21 + X22 + X23 +, +, + , + X2N could be written ∑X2.
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA): Another important distribution is the F-distribution, named in honor of R.A Fisher, who first developed and describe it. The random variable F is also a test statistic and is defined as the ratio of unbiased estimates of two population variances i.e. F = S / S . The F-distribution is used for inferences of this kind. The procedure of testing for the equality of three or more means is provided by statistical techniques which represent an important application of F-distribution or Analysis of variance.
The measure of Central Tendency: A set of data has several important features. If the data set consists of numbers we are not often interested in two characteristics of the data. The first is a number that is considered most representative of the set e.g. mean, median, and mode.
The measure of Dispersion: These measures serve to locate the “center” of the distribution but they do not reveal how the items are spread out or scattered on each side of the center. This later characteristic of distribution is commonly referred to as the dispersion e.g. variance, standard deviation.
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