Analysis of the Strategies for Employment Generation in Nigeria
This research work titled “Analysis of the Strategies for Employment Generation in Nigeria’’ was conducted to identify the causes of unemployment in Nigeria, to find out the impact of unemployment in Nigeria, to also analyze strategies for employment generation in Nigeria. The research work also aimed at proffering reliable solutions to the problems of unemployment in Nigeria. The sample size of this research work consists of about 89 personnel. The result of the analysis showed that government effort towards job creation is not encouraging. Based on the findings, it was recommended that all agencies at all levels of government should be involved in job creation, the government in collaboration with the private sector should develop programs to link education and training to employment. Youth empowerment is one of the transformation agendas of President Goodluck Jonathan should be implemented for a prosperous Nigeria.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The term unemployment came to be known as far back as man realize that he cannot always produce all that he needs and therefore, must have to depend on others to satisfy his needs.
However, as human civilization progressed from one stage to another, the need for individuals also increased from one level to another.
Human history shows that society has been witnessing the transition from one socio-economic system to another such as feudalism, capitalism, socialism, and communalism. While the process of transition is in varying degrees from one society to another, it is never absent in any society.
Any socio-economic system being practiced in any society has its implications on employment. This is why most early writers on the concept of employment came from capitalist countries and their works are dated back to the industrial revolution period in the 17th century.
Another prominent author that has done extensive work concerning employment is Keynes (1936). He was motivated to write as a result of the world economic crisis of the 1930s i.e. economic depression which affected the capitalist countries greatly and resulted in an alarming rate of unemployment.
His general theory of unemployment, interest, and money later came to be known as the ‘’Keynesian Theory’’ which is still widely in use to date.
In Nigeria, the history of employment as a public problem is dated back to the pre-independent era but reached its peak after independence as a result of hopes brought by independence.
Contemporary writers in Nigeria pay little attention to issues of unemployment. Since the discovery of oil in commercial quantity, the focus of Nigeria writers nosedive as a result of oil discovery which has resulted in their write-ups being focused on issues concerning oil such as derivation formula, oil spillage, etc. most employment generation policies adopted by Nigeria government are more camouflage than a plan with the intent purpose to solve the problem on ground.
This is the reason for the failure of these policies and this is responsible for the continuous increase in the unemployment rate in most Nigerian cities like Lokoja, Kano, Lagos, and Abuja. Where the spillover effect in unemployment such as social vices (i.e armed robbery, 419 activities, prostitution, child labor, human trafficking, etc) and crimes are on the increase
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The lackadaisical attitude exhibited by the government towards the problems of unemployment has worsened the crime situation in Nigeria. As the effort of the government is not encouraging in addition, the multiplier effects of unemployment can never be fully mentioned and explained in this research work as the list seems to be exhaustive. This is because problems are not been properly handled by the government in Nigeria over the years. This research work hopes to bring out ways in which solutions to this scourge of unemployment can help tremendously in solving the problem.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
In any research work, the setting out of a clearly defined purpose occupies a very crucial position. This work is not an exception. It is to:
1. Identify causes of unemployment in Nigeria.
2. Find out the impact of unemployment in Nigeria.
3. Analyze strategies for employment generation in Nigeria.
4. Proffer viable solutions to problems of unemployment in Nigeria.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Identifying the strategies for job creation in Nigeria is very vital to the economic development of this nation as a whole.
This research work will be of tremendous advantage to the teeming unemployed youth that is directly suffering from a lack of unemployment opportunities in Nigeria, this is because the findings of this will direct and focus their attention to a possible area of employment opportunities.
This research work is very significant because it would still be useful to other students in higher institutions of learning and those in business school in particular in the sense that it will serve as a point of reference to students that may wish to write on a related project topic in future. However, the findings of this research work will be of significance to those involved in employment generation. This is because the research work shall be brought to the limelight both the problem of employment generation and their solutions.
Finally, the findings of this research work will also be important to the general public in the sense that it will help in reducing the problems of unemployment in general.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Based on the major operational elements of the study, the following questions will form the basis of the investigation.
1. What is the effect of unemployment in Nigeria?
2. What are the factors or causes of the rising level of unemployment in Nigeria?
3. What strategies are currently being used by the government to increase the level of employment and how effective are they?
4. What suitable strategies can the government adopt to increase employment generation in Nigeria?
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work covers strategies for employment generation in Nigeria. It is restricted to activities of the Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity. And takes a look at the constraints encountered by the ministry in discharging this responsibility, how it has limited their performance, and possible ways out. The study will also look at the causes, effects, and solutions to the problem of unemployment in Nigeria.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The project work is limited to the federal ministry of labor and productivity as a case study and it is hoped that findings of this project will be extended to other institutions that are involved in employment generation in Nigeria. It is a living fact that in a bid to achieve any task, one is bound to encounter some problems at one stage or the other. Some of the constraints in this write-up were never envisaged and it was shocking to have ever experienced such.
Some of the problems faced in the attempt to complete this study include:
Finance: The impact of financial constraint on a study of this magnitude cannot be overemphasized. This is particularly so when one realizes that the cost of transportation, writing materials was high.
Time constraint: The researcher has to combine this study with his normal academic work, the gravity of time constraint on this work would be appreciated.
Lack of up-to-date information: The researcher was not able to lay hands on materials that contained the current development on employment generation and questionnaire were not properly filled by the respondents despite the instruction given to them.
Despite the above-mentioned constraints, the findings of the research work will focus on the true picture of issues surrounding employment generation in Nigeria as a whole.
1.8 DEFINITION OF KEY CONCEPTS
Some of the operation terms definitions are given below:
LABOUR: Labour as a factor of production refers to all forms of human efforts utilized in production. It also refers to man’s mental and physical extensions in the process of production.
INDUSTRIALIZATION: Is the process of establishing or increasing productive activities such as those engaged in extracting raw materials from nature, manufacturing or processing raw materials in finished or semi-finished goods, constructing or building capitalist projects, and assembling some parts into whole products.
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