The Study of Legislature in Promoting Political Stability Through Good Government in Nigeria
Government and society cannot promote and enforce ethical behavior solely through the utilization of ethical codes of conduct or the promulgation of a plethora of legislation. Communities tend to equate moral values and moral norms with values and norms, which apply only to personal relations. In terms of the Abia State House of Assembly Constitution, all government departments are required to be efficient which includes observing particular ethical codes of conduct. (Campbell Chukwu P.A, 2004) writes that public officials who are employed in complex government departments, have to be accountable to their immediate superiors, the political leadership, and the public at large.
Political stability legislation is those legislative enactment aimed at regulating and directing the activities of societies. It guides the ruling, formation of enterprises so that it enables their activities to be stable, effective, and efficient for the successful operation of a given society.
They originated in Nigeria in 1935 under the no.39 ordinance, while the legislation follows in 1936, Both applied the legislation follows in 1936. Both applied to the whole locating, then colony and protectorate of Nigeria. In 1952, the country was divided into three regions north, west and east, and was made a regular subject each adapted the 1935 ordinance with necessary amendments. in August 1977, the then federal commissioner for the supply Alhaji U.A. martial, set up a panel to review and unite Nigeria
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Concerning the term political stability, the annexation of Lagos in 1961 marked the commencement of British colonialization of territory which was later christened Nigeria by miss flora show in an article which appeared in the London Times of January 8th, 1887. Nigeria came into being in 1914 when about fifty-one nations that had existed for centuries with varying modes of the socio-political-economic and cultural organization were arbitrarily amalgamated by Britain to serve its interest which was predominantly economic is a fact on history and it is common knowledge that cord laggard was the west.
The 1914 arbitrary amalgamation which was greeted with protest both during and after the event as medicated by threats of succession at different times before independence above a seed of discard which lord laggards policy of developing the northern and southern provinces along separate lines planted in the country political vineyard to maternity by haggard successors whose actions were not designed to build a Nigeria state but to flourish the colonial causes.
Whatsoever, Nigeria has had many election.1922-1959: the history of elections in Nigeria dates back to 1922 when the constitution operation in the country then(Clifford constitution of 1922) introduced the elective principle by the Clifford constitution, four Nigeria were elected into the Nigeria legislative council one to represent caliber and three to represent Lagos. The franchise was limited to about 5,000 adults each the election was contested by less than nine candidates and between two quasi-political parties Nigeria’s national democratic party (NNDP) and the people union.
The election was also organized by the council government. The election was also free and fair and the conduct was peaceful and orderly. the nest important election which ushered in the constitutional settlement for an independent Nigeria, the first-ever direct election covering the country. Three political parties emerged during this period and participated in the election.
The national council of Nigeria citizens (NCNC) formally known as the national council of Nigeria and Cameroons which was the first modern political party in West Africa was formed in 1914 and led by Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe the action group (AG) was formed in 1951 under the leadership of Chief Obafemi Awolowo and the northern people congress (NPC) was formed in December 1949 under the leadership of Alhaji Ahamdu Bello .in the 1959 election the NPC won 134 states in the central legislature, the NCNC won 80 states which the AG won 73 states.
This election was also supervised by the colonial master, it was relatively peaceful and orderly 1960-1966: during this period the regional elections were held in 1963 and 1965 respectively and the federal election after the federal election was the western regional election in 1964 .two broad coalition contested the 1964 federal election. The Nigeria national Alliance (NNA) made up of the northern people congress (NPC) and Nigeria national democratic party in western Nigeria and the united progressive ground Alliance (UPGA) made up of the united middle belt congress the national council of Nigeria citizens (NCNC) and the action group (AG).
The election was rigged and different kinds of electoral malpractices were witnessed the limited progressive ground Alliance leaders claimed that may campaign and that some of them were kidnapped.
1985-1993: for the third time in Nigeria’s political history a transition program ahead at an orderly change of not just a government but a whole region type is being consciously and assiduously pursued by an in ambient government.
The first and second transition programmers were from colonial regime to an independent democratic regime in the later 1970s to 1950s to October 1960, and from military dictatorship to a democracy in the later 1970 respectively.
Neither attempt at establishing a last democracy succeeded beyond six years. The first attempt lasted from October 1960 to January 1960 while the second lasted from October 1971 to December 1983.
This last point that informed the present administration’s decision to introduce a transition program that is both extensive (its period is the congest in the history to transition programmers not just in Nigeria, but the African continent, and comprehensive hardly any aspect of social-economic or political life is left introduced by the program).
Today Nigeria is undergoing another transition to civil rule program and questions abound as to whether the nascent third republish will be a success or failure given the country’s economic incapacitation, the increasing personification or corruption in all segments of the Nigeria society, the down where the movement of the people’s social conditions, the unmistakable crises in the country’s education system, the prevalence of thuggery and electoral malpractices, the recurrence of ethnic-religious clashes and the fact that every good soldier who is advancing in his profession, now hope to and that career in a political office or leadership of one civilian institution or the other interracial.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The essential ingredients of and political system include a clear statement of the requirement which a citizen much have before he or she is qualified for any elective position, a comprehensive voters register, and good voting conditions which much ensure that the citizens exercise their franchise without any fear of molestation. The general election in Abia state house of assembly was very important in this case in that being the first stage of the transition to civil rule program. It could be taken as a test for the extent to which Nigerians were prepared to change their electoral behaviors for the better abide by the rules and principles of democratic elections. This is so because from the records as required by a democratic government.
Moreover, given the fact the first and second republicans were not freely allowed by the military administration to participate in politics, apparently based on the conviction of the government that their roles in the past have been highly unsatisfactory. The questions therefore are, in did the sponsorship of any of the candidates by the old categories of politicians affect the outcome of the election? Did the electorates base their voters on sentiment or objective assessment of candidates? The outcome of the election has one political stability in Abia state house of assembly.
OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The objective of the research is to examine the key issues surrounding the political stability in the Abia state house of assembly government elections in the light of candidates contesting on a multi-party basis, the voting behavior of the election, the voting process, and declaration of results. It is also geared towards pinpointing all these practices which are not part of the normal process and as such lead to political instability, the extent of the deviation and to inform a better understanding of the national political stability in the country either the individual contestant could rely on this inherent personality to secure the people mandates enabling him or her to serve them without depending on the sponsorship of the old politicians.
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is the legislature in promoting political stability in Nigeria through good government and in writing of this project, their researcher encounter some limitations, like inadequate finance, inadequate facilities, time constraints, environmental factors, etc, using the recent election conducted in Abia state house of assembly.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study of the legislature in promoting political stability through good governance in Nigeria using Abia state house of Assembly as a case study is important to the masses, politicians, students in public administration, the usefulness of political stability to the masses, politicians, students in public administration in making a decision and implementing government policies and programs if the problems of political instability will be decisively tackled or solved.
STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
Few hypotheses are adapted to the questions already posed. The hypothesis is as follows ;
I. There is a significant relationship between good governance and the state of development in Abia state house of Assembly
II. There is no significant relationship between good governance and the state of development in the Abia state house of Assembly.
There is a significant relationship between good governance and political stability. There is no significant relationship between good governance and political stability.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
I. Political Stability: This means firmly fixed and desired policies for growth and development on the policy.
II. Free and Fair Election: This refers to the absence of violence in the election stations or polls, the country of votes in polls immediately after voting and in the presence of both and electoral officer, the law enforcement officers, ensuring that the name of all eligible voters is included in the register of voters and allowed to exercise their franchise in the election day.
III. Culture: this refers to the arts, social, institutions, and beliefs of a particular group of people.
Iv. Culture Organization: this refers to an organized group of people who share the same arts custom and common beliefs.
V. Sponsorship: this refers to the advancing money to candidates with which to run the election directly or indirectly and also giving out a gift to electorates to persuade them to vote for a particular candidate and also giving their candidates advice on how to campaign and lobby for votes and support from the people.
VI. ELECTION OUTCOME: This means the relationship between the political parties and the objective they aim at.
VII EZINIHITTE MBAISE LEAGUE ASSOCIATION: This is a cultural organization in Ezinihitte Mbiase local government area of Abia state house of Assembly.
For the work, we will make use of games theory to explain the attitude of politicians and their candidates like a game of power politics. Some winning, others losing but always the rate of different times.
The political parties and candidates are viewed as players and various strategies adopted are the form of a game with a specific objective in mind and resources at their disposal. Shubik(1964)adds that ‘’it deals with the process in which the individual decision-makers has only partial control over the strategic factors affecting its environment. Varma(1958)goes further to state that in a given situation there are prescribed rules of conduct that guide players. He defined a rule of the game as the distribution of resources and strategic possibilities open to each player in the employment of these resources. It therefore specifics the rules. Thus the role played by resources goes to show that players have to choose alternatives here and how which in their view are required in determining their future state of affairs.
This leads to the concepts in the games theory:
I outcome: the relationship between the player and the objective they aim at.
Ii Prospects: Full range of possible outcomes. The prospects of each game have a specific reward or payoff.
Iii Strategy: this is a core concept in the ward of Ralph m Goldman ‘’strategy is an overall program of action that players adopt to achieve a devised outcome or series of the outcome. Under adverse or conflict condition’’. It includes all contingent plans that the player decides along the way how to act next. There are different types of games theory, zero-sum which is a person or parties game, non-zero-sum two-person or parties game-zero-sum n-person game, and non-zero-sum n-persons game. In this context, a zero-sum two persons or parties game seems the most suitable. The gains are always equal to the loss of the other and the sum of the outcome for the players being zero. For example, if the player wins N70, then player N has to lose (70-70=0).
The zero-sum game is what is involved in the process of political stability we are about to analyze. The political stability as in Abia state house of assembly laid here, the advantage and disadvantages to closing bin an election. This is by nature where a winner (in this context the individual) assures total control in both the economic and political realm of the system. Also for the fact that elections were based on the figures of majority voters, candidates who obtained such requirements were trusted with all the responsibilities of the state government in question. These include the award of contracts of categories, public amenities.
Scholarship and licenses, and the most effective of all which is a political appointment, therefore to be elected into the state government as commissioners or governor mean being in a position to get some or the whole of these and not be elected means exclusion from them. Influenced by these and allied gains candidates –perceive the election and campaign as a struggle that must war precisely, the extent to which the winner, gains, the sum the loses. Thus, the battle becomes a zero-sum game. Emphasis is placed on the pay off that is the prospect of the reward which determines the shape of the political stability in Nigeria.
Game theory as a theoretical orientation is used or very relevant in this study than any other because politics resembles a real game situation in the sense that it deals with the contesting parties. No party has full control of the situation and also interests are not satisfied to that same degree and at times some interests are not even satisfied at all for example in an election for the post of chairmanship, under different political parties. The party that wins is plus one to their interest and minus to the interest of the other parties.
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