(a) Discuss the cultivation of maize under the following headings.
(i) soil requirements;
(ii) method of propagation;
(iv) weed control;
(v) two fungal diseases;
(b) Describe each of the following farm records:
(i) production record;
(ii) farm inventory;
(iii) cash book;
(iv) labour record
(a) Cultivation of maize
(i) Soil requirements
- Well-drained soil, rich in nutrients;
- Sandy-loam soil;
- Thrives on neutral or alkaline soil
(ii) Method of propagation
- Propagated by seed.
- 90cm x 30cm at one seed per hole/stand;
- 75cm x 25 cm at two seeds per hole/stand.
(iv) Weed control
- Done manually with cutlass and hoe;
- Done 2-3 times on the farm at regular intervals;
- Could also be done mechanically with implements pulled by animals;
- Herbicides could also be used.
(v) Two fungal diseases
- Corn smut;
- Maize rust;
- Leaf spot
- On a low/small scale, could be harvested manually by breaking the ear from the maize plant;
- Cutlass could be used to slash the whole plant while the ear is broken from the plant;
- A combine harvester could be used on a large scale when the moisture content of the crop is low (25-28%);
- Could be harvested green or dry;
- Depending on the variety, the crop is due for harvesting from 60-120 days after planting.
(b) Description of farm records
(i) Production record
- Shows the yield of crops cultivated on the farm;
- Shows the produce from livestock/farm animals;
- Shows the date of collection of farm produce;
- Helps to forecast yield.
(ii) Farm inventory
- Farm inventory is a record of all the assets on a farm at a particular time;
- These include buildings, feed, land, animals, produce in storage and the number of machines on the farm;
- Usually taken at the beginning and end of the year;
- Shows the value of the assets on a farm;
- Shows the state of each piece of equipment.
(iii) Cash book
- The cash book shows the financial transactions of the farm;
- These include receipts from goods bought, the salary of workers, cost of inputs and output, records of all payments made to the farm;
- Shows receipts/sales on the left-hand side;
- Shows expenses/payments on the right-hand side;
- Shows the date of transactions.
(iv) Labour record
- Shows the number of hours that they work and dates;
- Shows particular problems with workers;
- Shows the number of casual or permanent workers and their qualifications;
- Shows the wages/salaries of workers on the farm;
- Shows the performance of workers.