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Discuss the cultivation of maize under the following headings

(a) Discuss the cultivation of maize under the following headings.
(i)   soil requirements;
(ii)  method of propagation;
(iii) spacing;
(iv)  weed control;
(v) two fungal diseases;
(vi) harvesting.

(b) Describe each of the following farm records:
(i)   production record;
(ii)  farm inventory;
(iii) cash book;
(iv) labour record


(a) Cultivation of maize
(i) Soil requirements

  • Well-drained soil, rich in nutrients;
  • Sandy-loam soil;
  • Thrives on neutral or alkaline soil

(ii)  Method of propagation   

  • Propagated by seed.                                                                              

(iii) Spacing

  • 90cm x 30cm at one seed per hole/stand;
  • 75cm x 25 cm at two seeds per hole/stand.

(iv)  Weed control

  • Done manually with cutlass and hoe;
  • Done 2-3 times on the farm at regular intervals;
  • Could also be done mechanically with implements pulled by animals;
  • Herbicides could also be used.

(v) Two fungal diseases

  • Corn smut;
  • Maize rust;
  • Leaf spot

(vi)  Harvesting

  • On  a low/small scale, could be harvested manually by breaking the ear from the maize plant;
  • Cutlass could be used to slash the whole plant while the ear is broken from the plant;
  • A combine harvester could be used on a large scale when the moisture content of the crop is low (25-28%);
  • Could be harvested green or dry;
  • Depending on the variety, the crop is due for harvesting from 60-120 days after planting.

(b) Description of farm records         
(i) Production record 

  • Shows the yield of crops cultivated on the farm;
  • Shows the produce from livestock/farm animals;
  • Shows the date of collection of farm produce;
  • Helps to forecast yield.

(ii)  Farm inventory

  • Farm inventory is a record of all the assets on a farm at a particular time;
  • These include buildings, feed, land, animals, produce in storage and the number of machines on the farm;
  • Usually taken at the beginning and end of the year;
  • Shows the value of the assets on a farm;
  • Shows the state of each piece of equipment.

(iii)  Cash book

  • The cash book shows the financial transactions of the farm;
  • These include receipts from goods bought, the salary of workers, cost of inputs and output, records of all payments made to the farm;
  • Shows receipts/sales on the left-hand side;
  • Shows expenses/payments on the right-hand side;
  • Shows the date of transactions.

(iv) Labour record

  • Shows the number of hours that they work and dates;
  • Shows particular problems with workers;
  • Shows the number of casual or permanent workers and their qualifications;
  • Shows the wages/salaries of workers on the farm;
  • Shows the performance of workers.