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Highlight five roles of agricultural extension in agricultural development in West Africa

(a) Highlight five agricultural extension roles in West Africa’s agricultural development. [5 marks]

(b) Outline four problems agricultural extension workers face in West Africa. [4 marks]

(c) Discuss the cultivation of groundnut under the following headings: (i) soil requirements, (ii) method of propagation: (iii) two methods of storage [5 marks]

(d) Mention two field pests and two storage pests of maize. [4 marks]


(a) Roles of agricultural extension in agricultural development in West Africa:
– Provides effective linkage between researchers and farmers.
– Serves as a two-way line of communication between policymakers (government) and farmers.
– Provides an opportunity for farmers to adopt improved farming methods, techniques and innovations.
-Enables farmers to be aware of support services available to them, including financial assistance /farm inputs.
– Helps farmers to become competent and confident to confront their farming problems at the individual level.
– Helps to supervise the beneficiaries of agricultural loans.
– Assists in the supervision and evaluation of agricultural development programmes.
– Helps farmers to identify better marketing channels to sell their farm produce.
– Helps to improve farmers’ standard of living.
– Helps collect and collate basic information relating to rural programmes.
– Conducts and organises training for farmers/educates the farmers.
-Helps in the implementation of auxiliary programmes, e.g. formation of Cooperatives and Young Farmers’ Clubs.

(b) Problems faced by agricultural extension workers in West Africa:
– Language barrier/communication challenges.
– Conservatism of farmers.
– Poor remuneration.
– Socio-cultural barriers/conflicting religious beliefs.
– Inadequate extension tools.
– Illiteracy of the farmers.
– Inadequate/poor transportation facilities.
– Inadequate extension workers.

(c) Discussion on the cultivation of groundnut:
(i) Soil requirements:
– Requires well-drained/sandy loam soil.
– Requires soil rich in calcium and phosphorus.
(ii) Method of propagation:
– Propagated by seed.
(iii) Methods of storage:
– Dried unshelled groundnut seeds are packed into dry bags or sacks.
– Dried groundnut seeds can be stored in clean rhombus or silos.
– Dried clean pods are stored in baskets, pots, earthen bins, or drums.
– Dried groundnut seeds can be stored in silos.

(d) Field pests and storage pests of maize:
– Grasshopper
– Stern borer
– Aphid
– Bird
– Termite
– Monkey
– Armyworm
– Squirrel
– Silkworm.
Storage pests:
– Weevil
– Rat/ mouse.