Computerization of Semester Results of Students
In the world today, there is hardly any institution or organization that does not make use of the computer system to solve one problem or the other. This is due to the advantage of the speed of processing, a large volume of storage, etc. In institutions of learning, the need to apply computers has grown because computers and appropriate software can provide solutions that will aid the assessment of students’ tests or exams. In a situation where there is a large number of students involved, then the need to use computerized assessment cannot be underestimated. Automating the assessment process enables teachers to carry out their job faster and accurately, this will consequently foster efficient academic administration and management. The benefits that accrue as a result of using a computerized assessment system make it a very important application for institutions that want to operate at a more professional level.
1.1 Theoretical Background
To some, this vision of a more efficient and informative assessment process sounds like a fantasy. But many states don’t think so, and they are actively exploring the conversion of their statewide assessment systems from pencil-and-paper exams to computer-based assessments. In turn, test publishers are working feverishly to stake their claims on that territory. Bold statements abound about the promise of computer-based testing. Can technology-assisted assessment live up to these promises? Throughout the relatively brief history of high-stakes assessment, many innovations have come along that promise to revolutionize the assessment experience. Some delivered. For example, innovations in the scoring of essays (e.g., scoring rubrics, large scoring centers) have truly changed the face of assessment, leading to the large majority of programs (state, local, National Assessment of Educational Progress) incorporating direct writing or constructed response questions. Other innovations, such as performance-based methods (e.g., portfolios, projects), have proven harder to sustain and have been relegated to low-stakes smaller programs or local assessments.
Now, with computer-based assessment, comes the possibility of radically improving both how assessments are implemented and the quality of the information they can deliver. But as many states consider whether to embrace the new technologies — and as some already have — serious concerns remain about the fairness of the new systems and the readiness of states (and their districts and schools) to support them.
Technology is no stranger to assessment. In the middle of the last century, the rise of multiple-choice methodology for large-scale assessment was fueled heavily by the development of high-speed scanners. More recently, computer-adaptive models, such as those described in the opening vignette, where students are presented with questions tailored to their ability levels, have promised to make assessment more efficient and able to target the needs of individual students. But past advances pale compared to those of the last decade, which has seen a rapid increase in both the use and potential of technology to support assessment. On the hardware side, advances in the speed, capacity, and availability of computers allow applications that could only be imagined less than a generation ago. On the software side, developments in database structures, simulation technologies, and artificial intelligence models promise to dramatically improve the efficiency and capabilities of assessment administration, scoring and reporting. College admissions and certification programs have led the way in using the new computer-based technology. The success of these pioneers has caused businesses ranging from the major commercial testing companies down to one-product start-ups to spend millions on assessment-related research and development.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The problem of most institutions is the presence of multiple errors in the computation of results, and the inability to retrieve needed information based on assessment instantly. This constitutes a serious problem for the management of student records. Manual computation of assessment results is not good enough because it is time-consuming, does not provide the instant presentation of assessment reports, and results in a lot of paperwork. The solution to these problems is the adoption of a computerized system for school assessment.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the study
The study aims to develop a computerized school assessment system. The following are the objectives of the study:
To aid in the computation of student results.
To facilitate the easy storage and retrieval of student assessment records.
To replace the manual system of recording assessment scores of students.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The significance of the study is that it will provide a better way of managing the assessment record of students. It will eliminate the stress involved in manually searching for information on students’ assessments. The study will also serve as useful reference material to other researchers seeking information about the research study.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This study covers the computerization of semester results of students of Akwa Ibom State University.
1.6 Organization of Research
This research work is organized into five chapters.
Chapter one is concerned with the introduction of the research study and it presents the preliminaries, theoretical background, statement of the problem, aims and objectives of the study, significance of the study, the scope of the study, and organization of the research, and definition of terms.
Chapter two focuses on the literature review, and the contributions of other scholars on the subject matter are discussed.
Chapter three is concerned with the system analysis and design. It presents the research methodology used in the development of the system, analyzes the present system to identify the problems, and provides information on the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed system. The system design is also presented in this chapter.
Chapter four presents the system implementation and documentation, the choice of programming language, analysis of modules, choice of programming language, and system requirements for implementation.
Chapter five focuses on the summary, constraints of the study, conclusion, and recommendations are provided in this chapter based on the study carried out.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Assessment: A judgment about something based on an understanding of the situation. A method of evaluating student performance and attainment.
Software: Set of instructions given to the computer to execute.
Computer-based: To be dependent on the use of computers and related software to carry out a particular task.
Computer-adaptive Model: A pattern showing how a manual system will be developed into a computerized system.
Artificial Intelligence: A branch of computer science that is focused on developing systems that mimic human experts.
Information: The meaningful material is derived from computer data by organizing it and interpreting it in a specific way.
Hardware: The equipment and devices that make up a computer system as opposed to the programs used on it.
School: A faculty, department, or institution that offers specialized instruction in an academic subject.
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