Utilization of ICT in Teaching TVET Subject in Nigerian Polytechnic
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In the traditional learning environment, it is the teacher who transfers knowledge to the learner through the medium of printed materials, particularly textbooks. There is not much technology usage and the practice of asking students to collaborate is often lacking. Teachers are likely to develop a positive attitude towards teaching and learning practice. Levin and Wadmany (2006) highlighted that teachers “educational beliefs filter their attitude and decisions as well as determining classroom practice. From this perspective, teachers” role is really critical as teachers are the ones who have to decide whether to use or not the available ICT tools. Tasks that are interactive in nature activate students’ understanding and tend to fix the acquired knowledge of learners. The activation of students understanding, the fixing of the acquired knowledge of learners and tend to influence the form of presentation of learned concepts by students. However, truly Information and Communication Technology (ICT) based learning is a form of education that occurs through the multimedia in-class environment. It does not consist of any physical learning materials issued to students or actual face-to-face contact. This type of learning environment has been claimed to promote opportunities for collaborative learning, explorative learning or engage learning.
Therefore, teachers are likely to have a significant influence on the introduction of ICT tools in teaching and learning. This study is concerned with Tvet teachers attitude, knowledge, utilization of information and communication technology (ICT) and the academic performance of senior secondary school students in Tvet subject. These issues might be important because Tvet subject teachers consider ICT resources as supporting tools improving students “engagement and also enriching investigative practical work, both are expected to enhance students” understanding, with their attitude, knowledge and utilization of ICT resources in teaching and learning seems to have an effect on their teaching and in some cases to determine the performance of their students. TVET subject teachers are expected to be proficient in Tvet subject to function effectively in modern society. There is evidence that technology is no longer a thing of the future in Nigeria but a part of the present. Technology has brought about qualitative and quantitative changes in the life of everyone in society (Ebenezer, 2005, Wole 2005). The use of information and communication technology in the teaching and learning process within and out of the school system has brought significant improvement not just in the rate of knowledge acquisition and dissemination but also in the level of the quality of the product (Audu, 2005, Abimbale, 2006).
Charalambous and Karagiorgi (2002) state that the teacher’s role is really critical since the teacher encompasses a particular dynamic, which supports either or success of new information and communication technology (ICT). In this perspective, teachers educational attitudes towards the use of ICT is expected to influence their decision whether to use or not a range of ICT tools and therefore support the implementation of ICT. There is also the possibility for the teacher to attempt to fit his personal belief about the use of ICT to actual educational situations, where different constraints might influence his decision as well. In such a case, teachers “attitude might affect their use of ICT in school (Prawat, 1992 in Evin and Wadmany, 2006:159). ICT includes communication devices or applications, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, networks, software and satellite systems, as well as the various and application associated with video conferencing and distance learning. Tino (2002) notes that ICTs are powerful enabling tools for educational change and reform. When used appropriately, different ICTS help expand access to education, strengthen the relevance of education to the workplace, and raise educational quality by creating an active process connected to real life.
The implementation of ICT policy in Nigeria dates back to April 2001 following the establishment of the National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA). NITDA was empowered to enter into a strategic alliance and joint venture to realize the country’s vision of making Nigeria an Information Technology country in Africa and a major player in the information society by the year 2005. The entire world has become a global village through information and communication technology. The new wave of office technology and information is a dynamic change that is being experienced even more in developing countries.
The integration of information and communication technology into Nigerian school curricula particularly in secondary schools has been a topic much debated since 1988. The government has tried to implement series of measures aimed at ensuring that the secondary school teachers and students have adequate training to enhance their acquisition of minimal competencies in the pedagogical use of information. (the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004).
Haddad and Draxier (2002) indicated that ICT contributed to effective learning through expanding access promoting efficiency, improving the quality of learning and improving management systems. According to Obeng (2004), ICT is now regarded as a utility such as water and electricity and hence has become a major role in education, learning and research in general, agriculture, health, commerce and even in poverty alleviation by generating or creating new job and investment opportunities. ICT is an indispensable part of the contemporary world. The field of education has certainly been affected by the penetrating influence of ICT worldwide and in particular developed countries. ICT has made an impact on the quality and quantity of teaching and research in traditional and/or distance education institutions.
Yusuf (2005) said that teachers need training in the application of various kinds of educational software in teaching and learning. They also need to learn how to integrate ICTs in classroom activities and school structure. The need for quality teachers is known in virtually all spheres of life to be the key predictor of students learning. Therefore, teacher training is crucial in using ICTs because ICTs are tools that can facilitate knowledge by helping the teachers to take full advantage of the potentials of technology to enhance students learning (UNECSCO, 2003). However, ICT have opened a new dimension in conventional methods of teaching and offering new teaching and learning experience of both teachers and students.
Enwereonye (2004) said that education in whatever form it takes is not complete without effective ICT. This means that ICT should be properly, rooted in both primary, secondary and tertiary schools curriculum so that the level of literacy will be increased about the use of ICT.
Akubuilo and Ndubuizu (2003) viewed ICT as a process that provides a link between levels of teachers and enables information instruction and decision to be conveyed from their point of origin to all those who need to be informed, is, the students. To do this, the teacher has to exhibit the use of ICT so that they will have the right attitude towards the use of ICT in teaching and learning of Tvet subjects in the classroom. The use of ICT in education opens a new area of knowledge and offers a tool that has the potential to change some of the existing educational methods and classroom environment. The teacher is the key to the effective exploitation of this resource in the educational system because the use of ICTs in the education system is like using instructional aids which bring about enrichment in the level of knowledge acquisition in classroom teaching (Olagunju, 2003). However, the use of ICT in teaching of Tvet subject will arouse the knowledge as well as the interest of the students, thereby making learning more meaningful and real to the learners.
Attitude according to Seifert (1991) is the acquisition of certain feelings about something or somebody, either positive or negative that influence his/her choice of action in a consistent way. In order words, the attitude of the Tvet subject teacher towards ICT could be seen as the way of thinking or behaving towards ICT. This may be as a result of the training they have acquired or exposed to from their institution of training. There has been a consistent effort in many countries to promote an ICT teachers or learners empowerment culture (Simpson; Munro and Hughes, 1999). In Nigeria, studies are far from being literate in information and communication technology, not talk of enjoying the benefits offered by this modern technology Habor Peters (2001) and Akudolu (2002) said that over 95% of teachers in Nigeria are illiterate in ICTS, such teachers will find it extremely difficult to deliver the appropriate education and training demanded by the information age of the 21st century for their students, presently, computers are being introduced and supplied to most secondary schools to initialize the impression and expectation of the public about computer education with a great effort in the teaching and learning environment; it is a great task for Tvet subject teachers to know ICT before they can teach in the classroom with these computers.
The use of ICT in teaching is a relevant and functional way of providing education to learners that will assist in them the required capacity for the world of work. Very few jobs today do not require the use of skills in technology, collaboration, teamwork, and information; all of these can be acquired through teaching with ICT. It fundamentally changes the way we live, learn and work.
Technology has entered the classroom in a big way to become part of the teaching and learning process.
However, the Tvet subject as a science course or discipline is known for its abstract nature (having no material existence) sometimes the Tvet subject teacher does not have adequate knowledge but have to fall on ideas that lead to contradictions with what the Tvet subject theory says or meant. Students are left on their own, even when they are to read on their own, they find no material to read, where it is available most of them are obsolete material. That is, some of these materials include textbooks, Journals, research publications and newspapers etc. where these materials are lacking the students are forced to lose interest, motivation and passion, in some cases frustration set in and students abandon the discipline or subject matter (Tvet subject). However, the Tvet subject is a unique subject, which promotes the acquisition of specialized science skills and knowledge, which explain the natural phenomena of life in society. It is a subject that grows up with civilization as man’s quantitative needs increase. It grows out of practical problems and man needs to solve these problems. It has contributed to the development of science and civilization.
Despite the abstract nature of the Tvet subject its teaching is to bring about scientific thinking in students; a mindset that requires students to test out, through experimentation. However, through the use of ICT, whether CD-ROM, PowerPoint, etc. the teaching and learning of Tvet subject are interesting.
According to Osunade (2003) internet is a valuable source of information for students looking for ideas for projects and assignments supporting this, Agommnoh and Nzewi (2003) believed that secondary students who are exposed to video-based instructions in Tvet subject have significantly better results than those who were taught using the conventional method.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Today, as the educational sector is faced with series of changes and reforms, it is good to reflect on matters concerned with the Tvet subject and the dissemination of Tvet subject knowledge and lessons numerous teaching strategies have been developed which correspond to the accommodation of students’ need and diverse learning methods. One such strategy involves the use of information and communication technology (ICT). The use of ICT in teaching is a relevant and functional way of providing education to learners that will assist in imbibing in them the required capacity for the worth of work. Investigation reveals that many learners at the senior secondary school strongly detest the routine manners in which the Tvet subject teachers handle and deliver Tvet subject knowledge and lessons.
TVET subject on its own requires observation and knowledge to solve natural problems. Oshodi (1999) states that awareness towards the use of communication in the developing world such that mere verbalization or over verbalization of words alone in the room to communicate ideas, skills and attitude to educate learners is futile. Agaye (2005) noted that the problem of information and technology illiteracy was a serious one among teachers in the country as it cuts across primary, secondary schools and tertiary institutions. He said that teachers in the country did not have basic computers and skills and note that the problem was a hindrance to efforts at achieving the use of computers for educational purposes in schools. It is a great task for Tvet subject teachers to know ICT before they can teach in the classroom with computers.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
To determine the influence of Tvet teachers attitude towards Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on academic performance.
To find out the influence of Tvet teachers knowledge of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on academic performance.
To examine the influence of Tvet subject teachers level of utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching on the academic performance.
To determine the influence of the gender of Tvet subject teachers on academic performance.
To determine the joint influence of Tvet subject teachers gender, attitude, knowledge and utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on the academic performance.
1.4 Research Questions
What is the influence of Tvet teachers towards Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on academic performance?
To what extent does Tvet teachers knowledge of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) influence academic performance?
What is the influence of Tvet teachers level of utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching on the academic performance?
To what extent does the gender of Tvet subject teachers affect academic performance?
There is no significant influence of Tvet teachers attitude towards Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on academic performance.
There is no significant influence of Tvet teachers knowledge of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on academic performance.
There is no significant influence of Tvet teachers level of utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching on the academic performance.
There is no significant influence of the gender of Tvet subject teachers on academic performance.
1.6 Significant of the Study
The finding of this study will aid Tvet subject teachers, educational planners, educational policymakers, curriculum planners, students, thus the study is significant as it gives them insight into what is needed, if academic performance is to be enhanced. This will then be emphasized so that these ICTs be put to use effectively and efficiently for a better academic outcome.
The School system will benefit from the study because it will enable schools to recognize the fact that qualified teachers make effective teaching and learning.
Perspective teachers in Tvet subject will be able to acquaint themselves with the recent development in Tvet subject education it is also believed that when the above is done, the academic outcomes will be satisfactory.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
1) The study covered only ten secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area.
2) Only Tvet subject teachers will be used.
3) The study was restricted to only senior secondary two (SS 2) students based on the fact that they have chosen the Tvet subject as a subject to be taken in the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE).
1.8 Definition of Terms
1) ICT: Information Communication Technology. These are communication devices or applications encompassing, radio, television, cellular phones, computers, networks, software and satellite system.
2) Computer: Is a programmable machine designed to sequentially and automatically carry out a sequence of arithmetic or logical operation.
3) Attitude: This is the acquisition of certain feelings about something or somebody either positive or negative that influence his/her choice of action in a certain way. The attitude of Tvet subject teachers towards ICTs could be seen as the way of thinking positively or behaving toward ICT.
4) Knowledge: This means what one knows, the body facts. The fact of knowing the range of information or understandings.
5) A Qualified Teacher: A qualified teacher by this study is a teacher who is a professional teacher with a minimum qualification of B.Sc (Ed) in Tvet subject.
6) Resources: This can be defined as the total of everything that may be used directly or indirectly by an individual or students, teachers, to achieve his/her academic goals.
7) Performance: In academics, it is the numerical interpretation assigned to students’ scripts in the Tvet subject.
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