Isolation and Identification of Microorganism in Stream Water [Atolagbe] Iree Town
Water is one of the most common substances known and it is a good solvent for many substances, water occurs at room temperature as a clear, colorless, tasteless liquid that freezes into ice at zero degrees centigrade and boils at 1000c. it is essential for life on earth. According to World Health Organization (WHO) in 1967 is the most important need of living things, it is second only to the air we breathe some scientists believe that all life began in water. Also, water is a molecule that consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom, when these atoms are heated to a high temperature they join in for water. It occurs in three natural states solid, liquid, and gaseous states. Water and ice cover about 75% of the earth surface and water vapor is an important constituent of the atmosphere (Ababio 1985) It exists under major two types which include:
Surface Water: They include streams, lakes, and shallow wells. The air through which the rain passes may contaminate the water.
Ground Water: They originate from a deep well and subterraneous springs. This is virtually free of bacteria due to the filtering action of soil deep sand and rock. However, it may become contaminated when it flows along the channels. Water in Microbiology can be contaminated when it contains a chemical or biological poison or an infectious agent. This condition also applies to water that is polluted except that the agent or poison is often obvious and water carries an unpleasant taste or appearance. (Encyclopedia America 1988). Portability refers to the drinkability of water when it is fit for drinking, when unportable it is unfit for consumption due to some contaminant or pollutant (Earnet 1974) other sources of contamination are various types of establishments and agricultural farms etc. Possible sources of microbial contamination of a body of water are soil and agricultural run-off, farm animals, industrial waste, discharges from sewage treatment plants, and stormwater runoff from urban areas. Contamination by sewage or human excrement and pollution by animals causes the greatest danger associated with drinking water in most developing countries. So it is necessary to examine the quality of water before consumption.
Monitoring and detection of indicators and disease-causing microorganisms are a major part of sanitary microbiology. Bacteria from the intestinal tract generally do not survive in the aquatic environment. They are under physiological stress and gradually lose their ability to form colonies on differential and selective media (Prescott 7th Edition).
Ababio, O.Y; (1990): New School Chemistry, New Edition, Page 227- 300.
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Earnest, A.M; (1994): Microorganism and Human Disease, 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, London. Page 23 – 24.
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Pelczar, T.C (1998): Microbiology Concepts and Application, 2nd Edition, Mc Graw Hill, London 120 – 132.
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