Research Skills and Academic Literacy Assignment Sample
Topic: Managing Knowledge Amongst Team Members
Title: Assessing the Impact of Organisational Ethical Climate on Knowledge Management Among Employees
|Q5||Questions||Title of paper: Shih-Hsuing, L. & Gwo-Guang, L. (2013) Key factors for knowledge management implementation. Social behaviour and personality. 41(3). Pp 463- 476.|
|1||What is the research telling question or questions?||Shih-Hsuing and Gwo-Guang (2013) analysed Knowledge management in relation to ethical climate (EC), trust, satisfaction and commitment; 8 hypotheses were offered explaining the positive influence ethical climate has on Km performance, trust and commitment also that trust has a positive influence on KM performance, satisfaction and commitment and commitment have a positive influence on KM performance also satisfaction would positively influence commitment.
H1: Different types of EC will influence KM performance differently
H2: EC would significantly influence trust
H3: Trust would positively influence performance
H4: EC would significantly influence commitment
H5: Trust would positively influence commitment
H6: Commitment would positively influence KM performance
H7: Trust would positively influence satisfaction
H8: Satisfaction would positively influence commitment.
|2||What are the key concepts?||Commitment, ethical climate, knowledge management, trust, satisfaction.|
|3||What methods are used?||425 survey forms were handed out, 154 were returned, but only 147 were accurate. Questions in the questionnaires were selected and altered from existing questionnaires, and a 5-point Likert scale range (strongly agree – strongly disagree) was used.
In measuring ethical climate, ECQ was used, trust items selected and modified from existing questionnaires were used to measure satisfaction, and knowledge quality was used to measure KM. SPSS AMOS was used for the data analysis, descriptive stats and structural equation modelling (SEM).
The fit of the research model was evaluated using the goodness-of-fit index (GFI), normed fit index (NFI), and standardized root means square residual (SRMR).
An advantage to the approach is that the appropriate measurement was used in measuring the models.
A disadvantage to their approach is that the questionnaires are based on existing questionnaires and as such information interpreted from the questionnaire would be based on existing ones. New findings would be restricted and/or controlled.
|4||What answers are presented?||Three (3) ethical climate models were distinguished; team interest (TI), company rules procedures (CRP) and laws and professional codes (LPC) according to results. A good fit in TI was indicated using a structural model test to determine the fit between the models and the data and to test the hypotheses. Out of the eight hypotheses presented six (6) were supported showing.
H1: ethical climates (EC) impacts KM differently; also
H2: EC was positively linked to trust, and commitment in TI, CRP and LPC; and commitment was positively related to KM performance in TI, CRP, and LPC; also commitment affected KM, while two (2) were partially supported showing that trust was predicted only in TI and has no direct relationship with KM and trust was predicted only in CRP.
|5||What is the contribution of the work?||The contribution based on the findings in the research provided clear models for how ethical climate affects trust, satisfaction, commitment and KM in the case study in regards to successfully implementing KM. There’s a need for further research, including larger sample size and diversity in cultural background.|
|Q5||Questions||Title of paper: Sayeed, M. S. M., Mehdi, F. & Hadi, A. P. (2013). The impact of organizational ethical climate on employee participation in knowledge management, in Guilan organization of economic affairs and finance, and tax department. Singaporean journal of business economics, and management studies. 2(6). Pp 9-19.|
|1||What is the research telling question or questions||The study tries to investigate the link between organisational EC and KM. A main question was generated; whether the EC of an organisation affects the KM of employees in the case study or not?
Hypotheses were also generated; the hypotheses in this paper were established on previous research work, and a main hypothesis and three secondary hypotheses were offered.
The Main H1 shows that there’s a relationship between the organizational EC and the employees’ participation in the KM process of the case study.
The secondary H1 shows a link between the organization’s selfish EC and employees’ participation in the KM process of the case study.
The secondary H2 shows a relationship between EC based on social responsibility and employees’ participation in the KM process of the case study.
While the secondary H3 shows a link between EC based on moral and professional principles and employees’ participation in the KM process of the case study.
|2||What are the key concepts?||The key concepts are based on Organisational EC, KM activities, and Organisational culture.|
|3||What methods are used?||A quantitative method was used for the survey process.
Knowledge acquisition, Knowledge storing, Knowledge sharing and application of knowledge were used as variables in the knowledge management dimension of the questionnaire.
The reliability coefficient was used to access the reliability of the questionnaire.
Descriptive and statistical methods were used for examining the theories and analysing data.
The advantage of this approach is that it focuses on the case study and easy interpretation of the results can be linked also to the case study. A disadvantage to this approach is that the sample size is restricted to one case study and would cause limitations if tried to link with a larger or different sample size; using a questionnaire, the authors are controlling the results based on their hypothesis and may miss something of importance.
|4||What answers are presented?||The test used in the paper showed the number of variables used and the reliability of the questionnaire was in order.
The results, based on the main H1 showed a positive and significant effect of organizational EC on the participation of employees in the KM process; based on the secondary H1 there was a negative and significant effect of selfish organization EC on individual participation in the KM process, based on the secondary H2 a significant and positive effect of EC on organizational social responsibilities on employees’ participation in the KM process, based on the secondary H3 there was a significant and positive effect of EC based on moral and professional principles on employees’ participation in the KM process.
|5||What is the contribution of the work?||The contribution of the research based on their findings shows that in the tax department of Guilan organization of economic affairs, ethical climate improves the employee’s work performance and satisfaction.
Sayeed, Mahdi and Haidi recommended ways of improving employees’ participation in knowledge management processes.
This work can be further developed by exploring more areas of ethics and how it affect employee knowledge management, and also to have a richer sample size not restricted to one organisation alone.
According to Shih-Hsuing and Gwo-Guang (2013), seven (7) processes are involved in knowledge management: creation, sharing, identification, collection, adaptation, organisation and application.
Organisational ethical climate has been investigated to have an impact on how employees perceive knowledge management, Sayeed et al., (2013). Employees’ perception of knowledge management can affect the organisation’s growth, Sayeed et al., (2013).
Ethical climate in organisations can be described as organisational practices which involve ethics.
These two research papers were chosen for this comparative review because both topics are related to knowledge management and ethics, also the researchers used similar case studies (organisations) to carry out the research. The papers are recent containing up-to-date information.
‘Assessing the impact of Organisational ethical climate on knowledge management on employees’’ was chosen because it aimed at describing the effect organisational ethical climate has on employees regarding knowledge management.
Shih-Hsuing and Gwo-Guang (2013) based their hypothesis on the nine (9) types of ethical climate (team interest, self-interest, company’s profit, friendship, personal morality, efficiency, company’s rules and procedure and laws of professional codes) and how they affect knowledge management. In contrast, Sayeed et al., (2013) developed their hypothesis based on investigating how the organizational ethical climate would affect employees of the Guilan organization of economic affairs, finance, and tax department in knowledge management.
The aims, methodology used by the two research papers and their findings would be a guide in the comparative review section, the similarities and differences would be looked into as well.
The purpose of this comparative review of the two research papers is to analyse the methods used by each paper, their findings and also with regard to ethics in knowledge management among employees in an organisation.
AIMS OF RESEARCH
The research work of Sayeed et al., (2013) aimed at identifying the impact of organisational ethical climate on employees’ knowledge management activities in the Guilan organization of economic affairs, finance, and tax department.
Shih-Hsuing and Gwo-Guang (2013) research aims to identify how knowledge management is affected by considering a wide range of ethical climates.
Similarities and differences in the aims of the research
Both pieces of research identified that knowledge management is affected by ethical climate and aimed at investigating at different levels how ethical climate affects employees’ perception of knowledge management.
Shih-Hsuing and Gwo-Guang (2013) clearly identified the ethical climates in their research and explained how each of them relates to the other. In contrast, in Sayeed et al., (2013) the ethical climates were not properly addressed but rather the organisational ethical climate.
The research method employed by Sayeed et al., (2013) was qualitative research. Random sampling of the case study (Guilan organization of economic affairs and finance, and tax department) which had a sample size of 900. Questionnaires containing 33 questions derived and modified from existing questionnaires by previous research work/authors were used; the questionnaires were based on a 5 – point Likert scale, and the Pearson correlation coefficient was used to analyse the data collected.
Shih-Hsuing and Gwo-Guang (2013) used a 5- point Likert scale questionnaire ranging from strongly agree to disagree strongly. The questionnaires used were also selected from existing questionnaires and modified; different measures were used to measure the ethical climate, satisfaction, trust, and knowledge management as stated in the research work. 425 questionnaires were distributed to employees in Taiwan of different companies and sizes with the majority of companies rendering manufacturing services; the respondents were related to knowledge management practices either directly or indirectly (their employees/ workers were involved in knowledge management). In the analysis of data SPSS AMOS, structural equation model (SEM) and descriptive statistics were used.
Similarities and differences in the two methods used
The two papers used a 5 – point Likert scale questionnaire derived and modified from previous questionnaires to carry out their survey; the method of analysis was different in the two papers, Shih -Hsuing and Gwo-Guang (2013) analytical method was explained in more context, also the amount and description of respondents were stated although the number of questions contained in the questionnaire was not indicated whereas in Sayeed et al., (2013) the number of questions and the sample size was known, but the amount that participated in the survey was not indicated. In Shih-Hsuing and Gwo-Guang’s (2013) research, the sample size contained varieties of employees from different companies in Taiwan while Sayeed et al., (2013) used just one company during their survey for carrying out the research.
In carrying out research sampling is a huge factor because your findings are based on it; if the sampling size is small or restricted the value or outcome of the research becomes questionable as to whether it applies to only the restricted sample size, a larger variety of sample size is advised to be used while carrying out research work.
The find of the two (2) research papers Shih-Hsuing and Gwo-Guang (2013) and Sayeed et el., both indicated that the organisational ethical climates described in each of the research work had an impact on how knowledge management is discerned among employees of an organisation and stated how the ethical climates impacted/affected knowledge management. The two (2) research papers presented their findings with illustrations on the method of analysis used, Sayeed et al., (2013) used tables showing the correlation coefficient, determination coefficient significant level and results to indicate the hypotheses testing result; on the other hand tables showing the composite reliability, mean, average variance and standard deviation were shown identifying three (3) ethical models also figures showing the three (3) ethical models were related to other factors as illustrated in structural equation model diagram was used by Shih-Hsuing and Gwo-Guang (2013).
GENERAL SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES
In both research works knowledge management and ethical climate was looked into.
In Sayeed’s (2013) definition of knowledge management, he added that knowledge management has to do with the ‘appropriate knowledge at the appropriate time by the appropriate person in an organisation by discovering, developing and creating, evaluating to access organisational goals by providing the appropriate structures’.
Shih-Hsuing and Gwo-Guang (2013) describe knowledge as an asset that is highly valuable in organisations and how employees are disinterested in sharing knowledge because of trust-related issues.
Organisation ethical climate
The ethical climate discussed in Sayeed et al., (2013) was linked with organisational culture and organisational climate; the research paper also described how organisational ethical climate was involved in the attitude of employees (judgement, sense of what is right or wrong, intentions, behaviour) within an organisation. Also, it indicated the company’s / organisation’s moral behaviour.
Shih-Hsuing and Gwo-Guang (2013) in their research work describe organisation culture as being involved in ethics and sharing of knowledge; the paper also indicated that ‘organisation culture is a critical enabler of knowledge management implementation’. The research described that an organisational ethical climate is formed when ethics is introduced to the climate of an organisation.
The two research papers aimed at identifying how an organisation’s ethical climate can affect employee knowledge management.
Sayeed et al., (2013) based their hypotheses on reviewing several similar research works, one of which investigated the impact of organisational climate on knowledge management. The findings of the work indicated a statistically significant impact of an organisation’s ethical climate on knowledge management.
Shih-Hsuing and Gwo-Guang (2013)
The organisational climate which focuses on employees’ attitudes and the organisation’s culture (values assumptions) is related to the concept of ethical climate.
Sayeed, M. S. M., Mehdi, F. & Hadi, A. P. (2013). The impact of organizational ethical climate on employee participation in the knowledge management process, in Guilan organization of economic affairs and finance, and tax department. Singaporean journal of business economics, and management studies. 2(6). Pp 9-19.
Shih-Hsuing, L. & Gwo-Guang, L. (2013). Key factors for knowledge management implementation. Social behaviour and personality. 41(3). Pp 463- 476.
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