Civil Engineering




Groundwater hydrology may be defined as the science of the occurrence distribution, and movement of water below the surface of the earth. Geochydrology has an identical connotation, and hydrogeology differs only by its greater emphasis on geology. Utilization of groundwater dates from ancient times, although an understanding of the occurrence and movement of subsurface water as part of the hydrologic cycle has come only relatively recently.

SCOPE: Groundwater referred to without specification is commonly understood to mean water occupying all the voids within geologic stratum. This saturated zone should be distinguished from an unsaturated, or earation zone where voids are filled with water and air. Water contained in saturated zone is important for engineering work, geologic studies and water supply development consequently, the occurrence of water in this zones will be emphasized here. Unsaturated zone a re usually found above saturated zones and extend uquad to the ground surface. Because this water includes soil masture within the root zone, it is a major concern for agriculture, binary, and soil science. No rigid demarcation of water between the two zones is possible, for they possess an interdependent boundary and water can move from owe zone to the other in either direction. The interrelationships are described more in some higher hydrogeology texts.

Title Page

Letter Of Transmittal
Table Of Contents
Chapter One
1.0 Historical Background And Groundwater Theories
1.1 Water Theories
1.2 Recent Centuries

Chapter Two
2.0 Importance Of Groundwater
2.1 Groundwater In The Hydrologic Cycle
2.2 Occurrence Of Groundwater
2.3 Rock Properties Affecting Groundwater
2.4 Vertical Distribution Of Groundwater
2.5 Types Of Aquifers

Chapter Three
3.0 Searching/Exploration Of Groundwater
3.1 Methods Of Groundwater Exploration
3.2 Groundwater Basin Investigation
3.3 Data Collection And Fieldwork

Chapter Four
4.0 Drilling For Groundwater (Wells)
4.1 Test Whole And Well Logs
4.2 Methods For Drilling Shallow Wells
4.3 Methods For Drilling Deep Wells
4.4 Quality Of Groundwater
4.5 Measures Of Water Quality
4.6 Water Quality Coterie

Chapter Five
5.0 Completion Of Wells
5.1 Well Development
5.2 Protection Of Wells
5.3 Well Rehabilitation

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